........... expresses the relationship of identity which exists between units in discourse.
Conjunction
Ellipsis
Reference
Substitution
............ reference points the reader or listener forwards.
Anaphoric
Cataphoric
Endophoric
Exophoric
..............reference items are expressed through personal pronouns, possessive pronouns and possessive determiners.
All are correct.
Comparartive
Demonstrative
Personal
‘not…but’ is the basic meaning of ….......
check_box Corrective relations
Adversative relation ‘proper’
Contrastive relations
Dismissive (generalized adversative) relations
……. is not an anaphoric relation.
Conjunction.
Ellipsis
Reference
Substitution
…….. means either restating an item in a later part of the discourse by direct repetition or else reasserting its meaning by exploiting lexical relations.
All are correct.
Collocation
Reiteration
Repetition
………. refers to the association of lexical items that regularly co-occur.
check_box Collocation
Reiteration
Repetition
Synonymy
……….. state(s) the ‘essence’ of the act, i.e., that the utterance ‘counts as’ speech act x or y or z.
check_box Essential condition
Preparatory conditions
Propositional content conditions
Sincerity condition
………..is the relation between class and (direct) subclass.
Antonymy
Meronymy
Superordinate
Synonymy
………..reference: points the reader/listener backwards to a previously mentioned entity, process or state.
check_box Anaphoric
Cataphoric
Endophoric
Exophoric
………..refers to the relationship between a particular text and other texts which share characteristics with it.
Acceptabilty
Informativity
Intentionality
Intertextuality
……….is the use of one lexical item with the same meaning in more than one sentence.
check_box Repetition
antonymy
general word.
synonymy
……….refers to the relation between different words bearing the same meaning or nearly the same meaning.
antonymy
Repetition
superodinate
Synonymy
……….refers to the use of nouns with general meanings to refer to some item with specific meanings.
check_box General word
Antonymy
Meronymy
Superordinate
…………refer to the information communicated by choosing a word which expresses one value from a scale of values.
All are correct.
Generalized conversational implicature
Particularized conversational implicatures
Scalar implicatures
…………refers to those pairs of opposites that are gradable such as thin><thick.
Complementary relation
Contrary relation
ordered series
Relational opposite
………context is the language that surrounds or accompanies the piece of discourse under analysis.
All are correct.
Experiential.
Linguistic
Non-linguistic.
………presents a part/whole relationship.
Antonymy
Meronymy
Superordinate
Synonymy
………refers to the situation giving rise to the discourse, and within which the discourse is embedded.
check_box Context
Discourse
Text
Textuality
A ……… act is the act of saying something which is meaningful and can be understood.
All are correct.
illocutionary
locutionary
perlocutionary
A ……….. act is performed via the communicative force of an utterance.
check_box illocutionary
All are correct.
locutionary
perlocutionary
A ……….. act is the results or effects that are produced by means of saying something.
All are correct.
illocutionary
locutionary
perlocutionary
A 3rd person form typically refers …….. to a preceding item in the text.
check_box anaphorically
cataphorically
endophorically
exophorically
A discourse can be of any size as long as it forms a…….
All are correct
group of sentences
large stretch of language
meaningful whole
A presupposition is something the speaker assumes to be the case …….. making an utterance.
after
All are correct.
before
while
According to Carthy (1993), cohesion is a guide to …..
coherence.
informativity
intentionality
Intertextuality
According to David Nunan, (1993), …. can be related, not only in terms of the idea they share, but also in terms of their functions within the discourse.
All are correct.
Phrases
sentences
words
According to Dell Hymes, the context consists of ……. elements.
10
11
8
9
According to Halliday & Hasan, (1976), discourse is …….
a grammatical unit
a unit of form
a unit of language in use
isolated words or sentences.
According to Halliday & Hasan, substitution is a relation within the text on the ……….. level.
check_box lexico-grammatical
grammatical
lexical
syntactical
According to J. R. Firth, all meaning was ……. .
All are correct.
context-free.
form-based
function in context.
According to J. R. Firth, by studying conversations can we understand………….. better
All are correct.
language and its form
language and its function
Language and its structure
According to J. R. Firth, the context consists of …….elements.
2
3
4.
5
According to Nunan (1993) there are ……..types of context
five
four
three
two
According to Searles, Could you lend me a pen, please? is a ……….
check_box directive
commissive
expressive
representative
According to Searles, Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that …….. the world via their utterance.
change
describe.
fit
None is correct.
According to Searles, We will not do that. is a ……….
commissive
directive
expressive
representative
Actions performed via utterances are generally called……….
check_box speech acts
All are correct.
speaking acts
utterance acts
Apologize, thank, deplore, compliment are examples of ...........
behabitives
commissives
exercitives
verdictives
appoint, dismiss, degrade, name, order, sentence are examples of ……….
behabitives
commissives
exercitives
verdictives
Based on………, reference is classified into exophoric and endophoric reference.
All are correct.
its function
pointing direction
reference realisation
Bert: Do you like ice-cream?Ernie: Is the Pope Catholic.Which maxim is violated in the above text?
check_box Relation
Manner
Quality
Quantity
Clausal substitution is expressed through ………. .
All are correct.
so and not
such and not
such and so
Coherence is concerned with the ……….. sequencing of the arrangement of the information, the concepts and relation of the textual world which underlie and are realized by the surface text.
illogical
logical.
random
surface
Coherence is the feeling that a text …….
check_box hangs together.
belongs to a particular genre.
contains information
has a formal surface relationship
Cohesion is concerned with formal surface structures (syntax and lexis) to interact with underlying …….. relations or underlying functional coherence to create textual unity.
check_box semantic
All are correct.
pragmatic
Syntactic
Contrary, complementary, relational opposite and ordered series are the four subtypes of ……….
antonymy
meronymy
superordinate
synonymy
Echoing and auxiliary contrasting are the two types of ………
clausal ellipsis
nominal ellipsis
None is correct.
verbal ellipsis
Felicity conditions are those conditions for the performance of a speech act to be recognized .............
check_box All are correct.
as intended
as speech act x, y, or z
as such
First and second person forms are normally interpreted ……… by reference to the situation.
check_box exophorically
anaphorically
cataphorically
endophorically
Grammatical cohesion is the surface marking of …….. links between clauses and sentences in written discourse, and between utterances and turns in speech.
check_box semantic
All are correct.
pragmatic
syntactic
Grammatical cohesive devices include reference, substitution, ellipsis and ……….
apposition.
conjunction
co-ordination
subordination.
grouped illocutionary acts into ………. classes.
five
four
six
three
Halliday & Hasan divides verbal ellipsis into ………
check_box lexical and operator ellipsis.
lexical and echoing ellipsis
operator and auxiliary contrasting ellipsis.
operator and echoing ellipsis.
He couldn’t live without her, I guess.In the above sentence, I guess is …….
a manner hedge
a quality hedge
a quantity hedge
a relation hedge
How many elements are there in Halliday’s model of context?
2
3
4
5
I’m not sure if this makes sense, but the car had no lights.In the above sentence, I’m not sure if this makes sense is …….
check_box a manner hedge
a quality hedge
a quantity hedge
a relation hedge
In Dell Hymes’ model of context, Code is a term which is used instead of …….
evaluation of the text
language
text-type
the time and place of a speech event
Informativity depends on the notions of …… and probability.
choice
interchangeability
Knowledgeability
predictability
It’s the way I like to go to work. One person and one line of enquiry at a time. Otherwise, there’s a muddle.In the above text, otherwise is a………. conjunction.
additive
adversative
causal
temporal
Lexical cohesion is divided into reiteration and ……….
apposition.
collocation
coordination
subordination
Linguistically, written language tends to consist of clauses that are…….
All are correct.
internally complex.
simply structured.
structurally independent.
Most of the instances of the substitute one/ones are ……….. .
All are correct.
anaphoric
cataphoric
exophoric
Nominal substitution is the use of a substitute item to replace the ………. of a corresponding noun phrase.
All are correct.
Head noun
Postmodification
Premodification
Not to change the subject, but is this related to the budget?In the above sentence, Not to change the subject is …….
a manner hedge
a quality hedge
a quantity hedge
a relation hedge
Passives, it-clefts or wh-clefts are common in…….
All are correct.
spoken and written texts
spoken language
written language
People, object, place, creature are examples of………
Antonymy
General words
Meronymy
Superordinate
Performative verb is a verb that .............. names the illocutionary act being performed.
check_box explicitly
implicitly
None is correct.
vaguely
Pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than is………..
done
said
shown
signalled
Presuppositions ………. under negation.
always change
None is correct.
remain constant
sometimes change
References to assumed, shared worlds outside the text are ……..reference.
anaphoric.
cataphoric
endophoric.
exophoric
References to the entity/items within the text are …….. references.
anaphoric
cataphoric
endophoric
exophoric
Reiteration includes repetition, synonymy, antonymy, superodinate,……..and general word.
check_box meronymy
homonymy
metaphor
metonymy
So, to cut a long story short, we grabbed our stuff and ran.In the above sentence, to cut a long story short is …….
check_box a quantity hedge
a manner hedge
a quality hedge
a relation hedge
Spoken language contains many ……, often simply sequences of phrases.
incomplete sentences
internally complex
subordinate clauses.
well-structured sentences
The action performed by producing an utterance consists of ……. related acts.
2
3
4
5
The basic meaning of the …….. is ‘contrary to expectation’.
additive relation
adversative relation
causal relation
temporal relation
The basic meaning of the …….. is ‘there is something more to be said’.
additive relation
adversative relation
causal relation
temporal relation
The Cooperative principle consists of ……… maxims.
check_box four
five
three
two
The first official studies on discourse appeared in….
the 1920s
the 1930s.
the 1940s.
the 1950s.
The interpretation of one sentence …….. without looking back at the previous sentences or referring to the coming ones.
All are correct.
can be achieved
is hardly achieved
is likely to be achieved
The overhearers or unintended addressees are referred to as….. in Dell Hymes’ model of context.
audience
channel
setting
topic
The relation between furninture and table, desk, chair, bed is that of ……..
check_box Superordinate
Antonymy
Meronymy
Synonymy
The syntax of spoken language is typically ……. structured…. that of written language.
check_box much less….than1923
All are correct.
as much….as
much more…..than
The three environments in which clausal substitution takes place are ………....
comparison, modality and condition
report, comparison and condition
report, condition and modality
report, modality and comparison
The topic, the purpose of the event and the setting belong to ….. context.
check_box non-linguisic
All are correct.
formal
linguistic
The writer is …… the speaker.
All are correct.
as implicit as
less implicit than
more implicit than
There are ………. types of substitution.
check_box 3
2
4
5
There is …….. of discourse kinds which consist of only one word/phrase/sentence.
check_box a small number
a considerable number
a large number
a number
There is a ……. relationship between discourse and context.
dialectical
limited
overt
unilateral
Those conjunctions like likewise, similarly, in the same way, in (just) this way express ………
check_box Comparative relations
Appositive relations
Complex additive relations
Simple additive relations
Under the influence of Bloomfield, and then Chomsky, linguists focused on ……….. problems of language for many decades.
All are correct.
formal and structural
functional
semantic
Utterances are not only dependant on the physical context for their interpretations, they are also …… the language surrounding them.
check_box closely related to
independent of
isolated from
slightly related to
What does Addresser refer to in Dell Hymes’ model of context?
Only the speaker
Only the writer
the hearer or the reader
the speaker or the writer
What type of conjunction is ‘only’ in the following text?I’d love to join in. Only I don’t know how to play.
additive
adversative
causal
temporal
What type of reference is essentially a form of verbal pointing?
check_box Demonstrative
All are correct.
Comparative
Personal
What type of reference is expressed through adjectives and adverbs and serves to compare items within a text in terms of identity or similarity?
All are correct.
Comparative
Demonstrative
Personal
Whenever there is an indirect relationship between a structure and a……….., we have an indirect speech act.
check_box function
All are correct.
meaning
proposition
Which does NOT belong to the Manner maxim?
check_box Be relevant.
Avoid ambiguity.
Avoid obscurity of expression.
Be brief
Which is NOT a felicity condition on the successful performance of the act of Promising?
The event will not happen by itself.
The event will not have a beneficial effect.
The future event will be a future act of the speaker.
The utterance changes the speaker’s state from non-obligation to obligation.
Which is NOT an IFID?
check_box punctuation
intonation
performative verb
word order
Which type of clausal substitution is perhaps not?
Substitution of comparative clauses
Substitution of conditional clauses
Substitution of modalized clauses
Substitution of reported clauses
Which type of presupposition is in the King of Sweden?
Existential
Factive
Lexical
Structural
Which type of presupposition is in Where did you go last night??
check_box Structural
Existential
Factive
Lexical
Why did you come home late last night? / I won’t tell you why.The type of ellipsis that takes place after why is………..
clausal ellipsis
nominal ellipsis
None is correct.
verbal ellipsis

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