. A number of subdivisions can be also suggested for informative translations, though the principles of ............................. here are somewhat different.
Class
Classification
Classify
Classifying
. The ideational is subdivided into two components, i.e., “experiential” and “logical”. They convey ............
Different facts of meanings.
Different paths of meanings.
Different roads of meanings.
Different ways of meanings.
........................................, the theory of translation should be a branch of comparative linguistics. His approach was purely linguistic and textual.
According for Catford
According on Catford
According to Catford
According with Catford
...................................................................................................., conjunctions do not signal the informa-tion present in the text, rather they signal, by means of "formal markers", "the way the writer wants the reader to relate what is about to be said to what has been said before"
As be opposed to reference
As opposed to reference
As opposing to reference
As to being opposed to reference
A world of ............................... .............................needs translators that beside their specialized knowledge in the two languages, they should also experience intercultural competence.
Different interacting cultures
Different interactingly cultures
Different interaction cultures
Differing interacting cultures
According to the frequency analysis, the topical/ideational elements occurred at the most frequent rates followed by .........................................and interpersonal elements.
Text elements
Texted elements
Texting elements
Textual elements
Analyzing the data ................................................................marked and unmarked Themes, the result reveals that the number of unmarked Themes by far outweighs the number of marked Themes.
check_box In light of
In part of
In some of
In turn of
As in the case of referential cohesive devices, the translator also ................................................the strategy of deletion while translating the condi-tional conjunction "even if".
Made fool of
Made fun of
Made part of
Made use of
Conjunctive cohesion is the type of cohesion commonly and most extensively dealt with .........................................................It is often referred to as “transitional devices.”
check_box In grammar and composition writing.
In grammar and compositional writing.
In grammatical and composition writing.
In grammatically and composition writing.
Contemporary translation activities of a translator are characterized by a great variety of types, ................. and levels of his responsibility.
Formation
Former
Forming
Forms
Context of situation consists of three aspects: ................................................................... Field refers to what is happening, to the nature of social action that is taking place.
check_box Field, tenor and mode
Areas , tenor and mode
Field, road and mode
Field, tenor and modification
Context of situation is closely related to various texts. Certain .............................................asks for certain text and in return, certain text creates certain context.
check_box Situational context
Situated context
Situation context
Situational contextual
Different types of translation can be singled out ............................the predominant communicative function of the source text or the form of speech involved in the translation process.
Depended on
Depending for
Depending on
Depending to
Each language has an area of equivalence in ........................ to the other language.
Effect
Means
Respect
Way
Each of these forms of literary activities comprises a number of subgenres and the translator may .................................one or some of them in accordance with his talents and experience.
Come in
Give in
Put in
Specialize in
Finally, pragmatic understanding is related to .................................... ........................................In that case, the target does not state what is transferred, but it states the requirement of the process.
check_box The message or implication of a sentence.
The message or implicative of a sentence.
The message or implies of a sentence.
The messager or implication of a sentence.
Finally, the device of ellipsis ................................................................omitting informationthat was presented previously, without affecting comprehension:
check_box Consists of
Consists about
Consists for
Consists with
Furthermore, the fourth device —substitution— is marked bythe use of nouns, verbs or clauses ......................................... ...................................previously presented. .
Replace some informations
To be replaced some information
To replace some information
To replacing some information
Furthermore, words such as hence and so indicate that there is a preceding segment of text presenting a cause or reason, and .........................................................
A followed segment presenting a result.
A following segment presenting a result.
A following segmental presenting a result.
A following segmentation presenting a result.
In addition to reading comprehension ability, the knowledge of specialized subjects .......................................................and a wide cultural background, and the global vision of cross-cultural and interlingual communication.
check_box Derived from specialized training
Derived about specialized training
Derived around specialized training
Derived with specialized training
In most cases, a translator decodes a text ................................................, conditioned by his ideology and world knowledge
According for his understanding
According on his understanding
According to his understanding
According with his understanding
In regard to reference, the Target Text tends ..............................................................................that are equivalent to the ones used in the Source Text.
To present cohesive devices
To presentation cohesive devices
To presentative cohesive devices
To presenting cohesive devices
In the process of communication, the meaning system is largely determined ........................... ..................situational context: ideational meaning by field, interpersonal meaning by tenor and textual meaning by mode .
By the five aspects of
By the four aspects of
By the three aspects of
By the two aspects of
In translation, there should be no change in the ...........................of narration or in the arrangement of the segments of the text.
check_box Sequence
Path
Play
Road
It is ......................... that the translation has the same meaning as the original text.
believe
presumed
think
understand
Literal translation .....................................word to word; group to group; collocation to collocation; clause to clause; sentence to sentence. The smaller the unit, the commoner the approach, following the basic translation procedures.
check_box Ranges from
Ranges about
Ranges around
Ranges for
Literary translation deals with literary texts, i.e. works of fiction or poetry whose main function is to make an .......................... or aesthetic impression upon the reader.
Emotion
Emotional
Motion
Moving
Literary translations may be subdivided in the same way, as each genre calls for a specific arrangement and ........................ .................specific artistic means to impress the reader.
check_box Makes use of
Makes useful of
Makes usefulness of
Makes using of
Mode refers to what part the language is playing, what it is that the participants are .............................................in that situation: the symbolic organization of the text, the status that it has, and its function in the context.
Be expecting the language to do for them
Expectation the language to do for them
Expected the language to do for them
Expecting the language to do for them
Similarly to pronoun reference, the cohesive device of conjunction proves ....................................................................... of the Target Text.
Be problematic for the translator
To be problem for the translator
To be problematic for the translator
To problematic for the translator
Technical and scientific translation has traditionally been the dogsbody of theoretical discussions of translation. The underlying rationale when approaching this type of translation has usually been that literature .............................a creative elaboration of language.
check_box Involves
Involvedly
Involvement
Involving
Technical translation is a type of  involving the  of documents ............................................ (, , etc.), or more specifically, texts which relate to technological subject areas or texts which deal with the practical application of scientific and technological information.
check_box Produced by
Being producing by
Producing by
Production by
Text is a meaningful unit, but to guide persons towards meanings it is recommended to start from ....................................................................................after that inspect the STs and their probable translation.
The lexico-grammar realizations analysis,
The lexico-grammatical realizations analysis,
The lexico-grammatical realizing analysis,
The lexicology-grammatical realizations analysis,
The ...................... of the translation should follow that of the original text.
Causes
Reasons
Results
Structure
The concept of context has been extensively studied by different linguists from ............................................, such as pragmatics and systemic-functional linguistics.
check_box Different perspectives
.Different minds
Different thinkings
Different trials
The device of substitution was not extensively used' in either text. Only the ST employed it once, .........................................
To using the verb “do”
Usage the verb “ do”
Uses the verb “do”
Using the verb “ do”
The distinctive relationship between .......................................................is established by the ability of translation to approximate a multilingual communication to a monolingual one.
The origin and translation
The original and translated
The original and translating
The original and translation
The model identifies three main functions that speakers/ writers uselanguage for: ................................................................. to encode interaction and to organize theprevious functions into a coherent whole.
check_box To represent experience,
Representing experience,
To present experience,
To represented experience,
The multiple Theme or split Rheme pattern was used at the most frequently. This indicates that the multiple Theme or split Rheme patterns are .....................................
Dominant in thetexts.
Dominated in the texts.
Dominating in thetexts.
Domination in thetexts.
The original text may deal ........... .............any subject from general philosophical principles or postulates to minute technicalities in some obscure field of human endeavour.
About
For
Of
With
The problem of empty Theme, the problem of the brand new Theme, the problem of overuse of constant progression, the problem of empty Rheme, and ..................................
The difficulty of confusing selection of textual Theme.
The easiness of confusing selection of textual Theme.
The problem of confusing selection of textual Theme.
The thing of confusing selection of textual Theme.
The process of ........................................................in a target language involves both lexico-grammatical and pragmatic analysis.
Decode a text andencoding it
Decodification a text andencoding it
Decoding a text andencode it
Decoding a text andencoding it
The relation between the two segments will be one of reason-result. ...........................................................................................substitution and ellipsis cohesion ties, which are meant to signal only one phoric relation at a time (with the exception of a pronoun, which can act in anaphoric, cataphoric, or exophoric reference,
Dislike reference,
to like reference,
Unlike reference,
Unliked reference,
The source language .................... of cultural context and situational context.
Consists
Contain
Contents
Have
The study is devoted to the exploration of English writing skill which sets out to obtain some concrete information on the students’ problems in writing English ..........................................
Support by Systemic Functional Grammar.
Supported by Systemic Functional Grammar.
Supporting by Systemic Functional Grammar.
Supposed by Systemic Functional Grammar.
The topical Theme is divided into two subtypes: ....................................................................Simple marked Theme refers to when a topical element is chosen for foregrounding while simple unmarked Theme refers to that which is most usual.
Unmark andmarked Theme.
Unmarked andmark Theme.
Unmarked andmarked Theme.
Unmarked andusual Theme.
The transformational model postulates that in any two languages there is a number of nuclear structures which are fully ............... ... .... ........ each other.
Equivalent for
Equivalent of
Equivalent to
Equivalent with
The use of multiple Themes is one of ..................................................................of writing exposition, helping the writers in their attempts to persuade the readers.
check_box The characteristic features
The character features
The characteristic featuring
The characteristically features
The writers used multiple Theme by ...............................................to topical Theme to create connectedness in the text. As a result, it provides the writers with an effective way to convey information circulated in the written text.
Adding text Theme and interpersonal Theme
Adding textual Thematic and interpersonal Theme
Adding textual Theme and interperson Theme
Adding textual Theme and interpersonal Theme
Thematic progression helps give cohesion and thus coherence to a text, guiding the reader through the text ................................................
In a logical and ration course.
In a logical and rational course.
In a logical and rationally course.
In a logically and rational course.
Thematic structure includes Theme and Thematic progression patterns, information structure includes ....................................................and cohesion includes reference, conjunction, ellipsis and lexical cohesion.
check_box Given and new units of information
Give and new units of information
Given and take units of information
Given and taken units of information
Theme ...................................................which is optional followed by the interpersonal element which is optional and followed by a topical/ ideational element which is obligatory.
check_box Consists of the textual element
Consists about the textual element
Consists for the textual element
Consists on the textual element
Theme and Rheme boundary is a sequential ordering and range of possible groups or phrases that use for setting ........................... ...............................structure.
Tenor and Rheme
Theme and Modality
Theme and Mood
Theme and Rheme
Theme can be identified in terms of three metafunctions: .......................
Ideation,interpersonal and textual.
Ideational, interpersonal and textual.
Ideational,interperson and textual.
IDeational,interpersonal and text.
There are also omissions, partial equivalences and even complete alterations of ..............................................................................in the ST.
The being connected signaled by the cohesive device
The connecting signaled by the cohesive device
The connection signaled by the cohesive device
The connective signaled by the cohesive device
Translation ........................ is an academic interdiscipline dealing with the systematic study of the theory, description and application of , , and .
Learn
Studies
Tutoring
Work
Translation is a .............. of actions performed by the translator while rendering the source text into another language.

Branch
part
Set
Wing
Translation is a .......................... of interlingual communication.
check_box Means
Direction
Seed
Wing
Translation shifts ....................... both at the lower level of language, i.e. the lexicogrammar, and at the higher thematic level of text.
Drive
Find
Occur
Run
Translators need .................... ...................................................that help to achieve their goals in enhancing communication across different nations.
check_box To encompass a diversity of factors
Encompass a diversity of factors
Encompassing a diversity of factors
To encompassing a diversity of factors
Translators should be skilled to handle the challenge of intercultural associations, which in a way incorporates forces of ......... .........................................................and many other historical and societal factors.
check_box Politics, economics, religion, poetics, ideology,
Political, economics, religion, poetics, ideology,
Politics, economical, religion, poetics, ideology,
Politics, economics, religious, poetics, ideology,
Translators usually have to deal with six different problematic areas in their work, .......................................they are translating technical documents or a sworn statement.
check_box Whether
How
What
When
Transliteration is the process rendering the letters of one alphabet in terms of the letters of another with a different alphabetical system. In transcription the pronunciation of ................................................is transcribed in the alphabetical system of the Target Language.
The Course Language word
The Resource Language word
The Source Language word
The Source Linguistic word
Unlike reference, ellipsis, substitution and conjunctive cohesion, lexical cohesion is notassociated with any special syntactic classes of elements. It is therefore .............................................................................and least adequately defined of the five kinds.
check_box The most open-ended
The most open-ending
The most opening-ended
The most openly - ended
While the presence of specialized  is a feature of technical texts, specialized terminology alone is not ........................................... classifying a text as "technical" since numerous disciplines and subjects which are not "technical" possess what can be regarded as specialized terminology
Insufficiency for
Sufficiency for
Sufficient for
Sufficiently for
Word-for-word translation transfers Source Language grammar and .................................., as well as the primary meanings of all the Source Language words into the translation, and is normally effective only for brief simple neutral sentences.
check_box Word-order
Word-arrangement
Word-boundary
Word-line

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