Choose the most suitable headings for the paragraph.An intellectual breakthrough, brilliant though it may be, does not automatically ensure that the transition is made from theory to practice. Despite the fact that rockets had been used sporadically for several hundred years, they remained a relatively minor artefact of civilisation until the twentieth century. Prodigious efforts, accelerated during two world wars, were required before the technology of primitive rocketry could be translated into the reality of sophisticated astronauts. It is strange that the rocket was generally ignored by writers of fiction to transport their heroes to mysterious realms beyond the Earth, even though it had been commonly used in fireworks displays in China since the thirteenth century. The reason is that nobody associated the reaction principle with the idea of travelling through space to a neighbouring world.
The impact of the reaction principle
How the reaction principle
The first use of steam
Writers’ theories of the reaction principle
Choose the most suitable headings for the paragraph.The concept of the rocket, or rather the mechanism behind the idea of propelling an object into the air, has been around for well over two thousand years. However, it wasn’t until the discovery of the reaction principle, which was the key to space travel and so represents one of the great milestones in the history of scientific thought, that rocket technology was able to develop. Not only did it solve a problem that had intrigued man for ages, but, more importantly, it literally opened the door to exploration of the universe.
The impact of the reaction principle
Writers’ theories of the reaction principle
How the reaction principle
The first use of steam
In paragraphs A to D the author describes four processes which may contribute to the extinction of a species. Match the process to the suitable paragraph.A Early attempts to predict population viability were based on demographic uncertainty Whether an individual survives from one year to the next will largely be a matter of chance. Some pairs may produce several young in a single year while others may produce none in that same year. Small populations will fluctuate enormously because of the random nature of birth and death and these chance fluctuations can cause species extinctions even if, on average, the population size should increase. Taking only this uncertainty of ability to reproduce into account, extinction is unlikely if the number of individuals in a population is above about 50 and the population is growing.B Small populations cannot avoid a certain amount of inbreeding. This is particularly true if there is a very small number of one sex. For example, if there are only 20 individuals of a species and only one is a male, all future individuals in the species must be descended from that one male. For most animal species such individuals are less likely to survive and reproduce. Inbreeding increases the chance of extinction.C Variation within a species is the raw material upon which natural selection acts. Without genetic variability a species lacks the capacity to evolve and cannot adapt to changes in its environment or to new predators and new diseases. The loss of genetic diversity associated with reductions in population size will contribute to the likelihood of extinction.D Recent research has shown that other factors need to be considered. Australia’s environment fluctuates enormously from year to year. These fluctuations add yet another degree of uncertainty to the survival of many species. Catastrophes such as fire, flood, drought or epidemic may reduce population sizes to a small fraction of their average level. When allowance is made for these two additional elements of uncertainty the population size necessary to be confident of persistence for a few hundred years may increase to several thousand.An imblance of the sexes.
check_box Paragraph B
Paragraph D
Paragraph C
Paragraph A
In paragraphs A to D the author describes four processes which may contribute to the extinction of a species. Match the process to the suitable paragraph.A Early attempts to predict population viability were based on demographic uncertainty Whether an individual survives from one year to the next will largely be a matter of chance. Some pairs may produce several young in a single year while others may produce none in that same year. Small populations will fluctuate enormously because of the random nature of birth and death and these chance fluctuations can cause species extinctions even if, on average, the population size should increase. Taking only this uncertainty of ability to reproduce into account, extinction is unlikely if the number of individuals in a population is above about 50 and the population is growing.B Small populations cannot avoid a certain amount of inbreeding. This is particularly true if there is a very small number of one sex. For example, if there are only 20 individuals of a species and only one is a male, all future individuals in the species must be descended from that one male. For most animal species such individuals are less likely to survive and reproduce. Inbreeding increases the chance of extinction.C Variation within a species is the raw material upon which natural selection acts. Without genetic variability a species lacks the capacity to evolve and cannot adapt to changes in its environment or to new predators and new diseases. The loss of genetic diversity associated with reductions in population size will contribute to the likelihood of extinction.D Recent research has shown that other factors need to be considered. Australia’s environment fluctuates enormously from year to year. These fluctuations add yet another degree of uncertainty to the survival of many species. Catastrophes such as fire, flood, drought or epidemic may reduce population sizes to a small fraction of their average level. When allowance is made for these two additional elements of uncertainty the population size necessary to be confident of persistence for a few hundred years may increase to several thousand.Loss of ability to adapt.
check_box Paragraph C
Paragraph B
Paragraph A
Paragraph D
In paragraphs A to D the author describes four processes which may contribute to the extinction of a species. Match the process to the suitable paragraph.A Early attempts to predict population viability were based on demographic uncertainty Whether an individual survives from one year to the next will largely be a matter of chance. Some pairs may produce several young in a single year while others may produce none in that same year. Small populations will fluctuate enormously because of the random nature of birth and death and these chance fluctuations can cause species extinctions even if, on average, the population size should increase. Taking only this uncertainty of ability to reproduce into account, extinction is unlikely if the number of individuals in a population is above about 50 and the population is growing.B Small populations cannot avoid a certain amount of inbreeding. This is particularly true if there is a very small number of one sex. For example, if there are only 20 individuals of a species and only one is a male, all future individuals in the species must be descended from that one male. For most animal species such individuals are less likely to survive and reproduce. Inbreeding increases the chance of extinction.C Variation within a species is the raw material upon which natural selection acts. Without genetic variability a species lacks the capacity to evolve and cannot adapt to changes in its environment or to new predators and new diseases. The loss of genetic diversity associated with reductions in population size will contribute to the likelihood of extinction.D Recent research has shown that other factors need to be considered. Australia’s environment fluctuates enormously from year to year. These fluctuations add yet another degree of uncertainty to the survival of many species. Catastrophes such as fire, flood, drought or epidemic may reduce population sizes to a small fraction of their average level. When allowance is made for these two additional elements of uncertainty the population size necessary to be confident of persistence for a few hundred years may increase to several thousand.Natural disasters.
Paragraph D
Paragraph A
Paragraph C
Paragraph B
In paragraphs A to D the author describes four processes which may contribute to the extinction of a species. Match the process to the suitable paragraph.A Early attempts to predict population viability were based on demographic uncertainty Whether an individual survives from one year to the next will largely be a matter of chance. Some pairs may produce several young in a single year while others may produce none in that same year. Small populations will fluctuate enormously because of the random nature of birth and death and these chance fluctuations can cause species extinctions even if, on average, the population size should increase. Taking only this uncertainty of ability to reproduce into account, extinction is unlikely if the number of individuals in a population is above about 50 and the population is growing.B Small populations cannot avoid a certain amount of inbreeding. This is particularly true if there is a very small number of one sex. For example, if there are only 20 individuals of a species and only one is a male, all future individuals in the species must be descended from that one male. For most animal species such individuals are less likely to survive and reproduce. Inbreeding increases the chance of extinction.C Variation within a species is the raw material upon which natural selection acts. Without genetic variability a species lacks the capacity to evolve and cannot adapt to changes in its environment or to new predators and new diseases. The loss of genetic diversity associated with reductions in population size will contribute to the likelihood of extinction.D Recent research has shown that other factors need to be considered. Australia’s environment fluctuates enormously from year to year. These fluctuations add yet another degree of uncertainty to the survival of many species. Catastrophes such as fire, flood, drought or epidemic may reduce population sizes to a small fraction of their average level. When allowance is made for these two additional elements of uncertainty the population size necessary to be confident of persistence for a few hundred years may increase to several thousand.The haphazard nature of reproduction.
check_box Paragraph A
Paragraph D
Paragraph C
Paragraph B
Read the text and choose the best answer. These stories of killer bees in the news in recent years have attracted a lot of attention as bees have made their way from South America to North America. Killer bees are reputed to be extremely aggressive in nature, although experts say that their aggression may have been somewhatinflated. The killer bee is a hybrid—or combination- of the very mild European strain of honeybee and the considerably more aggressive African bee, which was created when African strain was imported into Brazil in 1955. The African bees were brought into Brazil because their aggression was considered an advantage: they were far more productive than their European counterparts in that they spent a higher percentage of their time working and continued working longer in inclement weather than did the European bees. These killer bees have been known to attack humans and animals, and some fatalities have occurred. Experts point out, however, that the mixed breed known as the killer bee is actually not at all as aggressive as the pure African bee. They also point out that the attacks have a chemical cause. A killer bee stings only when it has been disturbed; it is not aggressive by nature. However, after a disturbed bee stings and flies away, it leaves its stinger embedded in the victim. In the vicera attached to the embedded stinger is the chemical isoamyl acetate, which has an odor that attracts other bees. As other bees approach the victim of the original sting, the victim tends to panic, thus disturbing other bees and causing them to sting. The new sting create more of the chemical isoamyl acetate, which attracts more bees and increases the panic level of the victim. Killer bees tend to travel in largeclusteror swarms and thus respond in large numbers to the production of isoamyl acetate. A “hybrid" in paragraph 2 is
an enemy
a mixture
a predecessor
a relative
Read the text and choose the best answer.‘People still tell me, “Children don’t read nowadays”,’ says David Almond, the award-winning author of children’s books such as Skellig. The truth is that they are skilled, creative readers. When I do classroom visits, they ask me very sophisticated questions about use of language, story structure, chapters and dialogue.’ No one is denying that books are competing with other forms of entertainment for children’s attention but it seems as though children find a special kind of mental nourishment within the printed page.What is the main idea of this paragraph?
check_box the fact that children are able to identify and discuss the important elements of fiction
Children will read many books by an author that they like.
Children are quick to decide whether they like or dislike a book
the undervaluing of children’s society
Read the text and choose the best answer.‘The dingo started out as a quiet observer,’ writes Roland Breckwoldt, in A Very Elegant Animal: The Dingo, ‘but soon came to represent everything that was dark and dangerous on the continent.’ It is estimated that since sheep arrived in Australia, dingo numbers have increased a hundredfold. Though dingoes have been eradicated from parts of Australia, an educated guess puts the population at more than a million.Eventually government officials and graziers agreed that one well-maintained fence, placed on the outer rim of sheep country and paid for by taxes levied on woolgrowers, should supplant the maze of private netting. By 1960, three states joined their barriers to form a single dog fence.Dingoes have flourished as a result of the sheep industry.
check_box TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.A few years ago, publishers lost confidence and wanted to make books more like television, the medium that frightened them most,’ says children’s book critic Julia Eccleshare. ‘But books aren’t TV, and you will find that children always say that the good thing about books is that you can see them in your head. Children are demanding readers,’ she says. ‘If they don’t get it in two pages, they’ll drop it.’No more are children’s authors considered mere sentimentalists or failed adult writers. 'Some feted adult writers would kill for the sales,’ says Almond, who sold 42,392 copies of Skellig in 1999 alone. And advances seem to be growing too: UK publishing outfit Orion recently negotiated a six-figure sum from US company Scholastic for The Seeing Stone, a children's novel by Kevin Crossley-Holland, the majority of which will go to the author.Which company has just invested heavily in an unpublished children’s book?
check_box Orion
Skellig
Kevin Crossley-Holland
Almond
Read the text and choose the best answer.A stumbling blockHowever, there is still a big stumbling block. The laser is no nifty portable: it’s a monster that takes up a whole room. Diels is trying to cut down the size and says that a laser around the size of a small table is in the offing. He plans to test this more manageable system on live thunderclouds next summer.Bernstein says that Diels’s system is attracting lots of interest from the power companies. But they have not yet come up with the $5 million that EPRI says will be needed to develop a commercial system, by making the lasers yet smaller and cheaper. ‘I cannot say I have money yet, but I’m working on it,’ says Bernstein. He reckons that the forthcoming field tests will be the turning point - and he’s hoping for good news. Bernstein predicts ‘an avalanche of interest and support’ if all goes well. He expects to see cloud-zappers eventually costing $50,000 to $100,000 each.Other scientists could also benefit. With a lightning ‘switch’ at their fingertips, materials scientists could find out what happens when mighty currents meet matter. Diels also hopes to see the birth of ‘interactive meteorology’ - not just forecasting the weather but controlling it. ‘If we could discharge clouds, we might affect the weather,’ he says.And perhaps, says Diels, we’ll be able to confront some other meteorological menaces. ‘We think we could prevent hail by inducing lightning,’ he says. Thunder, the shock wave that comes from a lightning flash, is thought to be the trigger for the torrential rain that is typical of storms. A laser thunder factory could shake the moisture out of clouds, perhaps preventing the formation of the giant hailstones that threaten crops. With luck, as the storm clouds gather this winter, laser-toting researchers could, for the first time, strike back.Obtaining money to improve the lasers will depend on tests in real storms.
TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.A stumbling blockHowever, there is still a big stumbling block. The laser is no nifty portable: it’s a monster that takes up a whole room. Diels is trying to cut down the size and says that a laser around the size of a small table is in the offing. He plans to test this more manageable system on live thunderclouds next summer.Bernstein says that Diels’s system is attracting lots of interest from the power companies. But they have not yet come up with the $5 million that EPRI says will be needed to develop a commercial system, by making the lasers yet smaller and cheaper. ‘I cannot say I have money yet, but I’m working on it,’ says Bernstein. He reckons that the forthcoming field tests will be the turning point - and he’s hoping for good news. Bernstein predicts ‘an avalanche of interest and support’ if all goes well. He expects to see cloud-zappers eventually costing $50,000 to $100,000 each.Other scientists could also benefit. With a lightning ‘switch’ at their fingertips, materials scientists could find out what happens when mighty currents meet matter. Diels also hopes to see the birth of ‘interactive meteorology’ - not just forecasting the weather but controlling it. ‘If we could discharge clouds, we might affect the weather,’ he says.And perhaps, says Diels, we’ll be able to confront some other meteorological menaces. ‘We think we could prevent hail by inducing lightning,’ he says. Thunder, the shock wave that comes from a lightning flash, is thought to be the trigger for the torrential rain that is typical of storms. A laser thunder factory could shake the moisture out of clouds, perhaps preventing the formation of the giant hailstones that threaten crops. With luck, as the storm clouds gather this winter, laser-toting researchers could, for the first time, strike back.The main difficulty associated with using the laser equipment is related to its………………..
the trigger
interactive meteorology
money
size
Read the text and choose the best answer.A stumbling blockHowever, there is still a big stumbling block. The laser is no nifty portable: it’s a monster that takes up a whole room. Diels is trying to cut down the size and says that a laser around the size of a small table is in the offing. He plans to test this more manageable system on live thunderclouds next summer.Bernstein says that Diels’s system is attracting lots of interest from the power companies. But they have not yet come up with the $5 million that EPRI says will be needed to develop a commercial system, by making the lasers yet smaller and cheaper. ‘I cannot say I have money yet, but I’m working on it,’ says Bernstein. He reckons that the forthcoming field tests will be the turning point - and he’s hoping for good news. Bernstein predicts ‘an avalanche of interest and support’ if all goes well. He expects to see cloud-zappers eventually costing $50,000 to $100,000 each.Other scientists could also benefit. With a lightning ‘switch’ at their fingertips, materials scientists could find out what happens when mighty currents meet matter. Diels also hopes to see the birth of ‘interactive meteorology’ - not just forecasting the weather but controlling it. ‘If we could discharge clouds, we might affect the weather,’ he says.And perhaps, says Diels, we’ll be able to confront some other meteorological menaces. ‘We think we could prevent hail by inducing lightning,’ he says. Thunder, the shock wave that comes from a lightning flash, is thought to be the trigger for the torrential rain that is typical of storms. A laser thunder factory could shake the moisture out of clouds, perhaps preventing the formation of the giant hailstones that threaten crops. With luck, as the storm clouds gather this winter, laser-toting researchers could, for the first time, strike back.Weather forecasters are intensely interested in Diels’s system.
NOT GIVEN
FALSE
TRUE
Read the text and choose the best answer.A war has been going on for almost a hundred years between the sheep farmers of Australia and the dingo, Australia’s wild dog. To protect their livelihood, the farmers built a wire fence, 3,307 miles of continuous wire mesh, reaching from the coast of South Australia all the way to the cotton fields of eastern Queensland, just short of the Pacific Ocean.Why was the fence built?
to separate the sheep from the cattle
to stop the dingoes from being slaughtered by farmers
to act as a boundary between properties
to protect the Australian wool industry
Read the text and choose the best answer.Across the Palaeolithic age - which covers the period between 2.6 million and 10,000years ago - prey animals were large, fast on their feet, or both. For men, this would have meant lots of walking or jogging to find herds, dramatic sprints, jumps and turns, perhaps violent struggles, and long walks home carrying the kill. Women may not have had such intense exercise, but they would have spent many hours walking to sources of water or food, digging up tubers, and carrying children. If modern hunter-gatherers are anything to go by, men may have hunted for up to four days a week and travelled 15 kilometres or more on each trip. Women may have gathered food every two or three days. There would also have been plenty of other regular physical activities for both sexes such as skinning animals and tool making, and probably dancing.Our ancestors must have evolved cardiovascular, metabolic and thermoregulatory systems capable of sustaining high-level aerobic exertion under the hot African sun, according to Loren Cordain of the Human Performance Laboratory at Colorado State University. And given that the Palaeolithic era ended only an evolutionary blink of an eye ago, we ignore its legacy at our peril. Cordain and his colleagues point out that in today's developed societies, inactivity is associated with disease. Contemporary hunter- gatherer societies rarely experience these modern killers, they say.This is where De Vany's exercise ideas come in. 'The primary objectives for any exercise and diet programme must be to counter hyper-insulinaemia (chronically elevated insulin) and hypoexertion (wasting of the body's lean mass through inactivity),' he writes in his forthcoming book about evolutionary exercise. Exercise and diet are linked. For example, says De Vany, our appetite control mechanisms work best when our activity mimics that of our ancestors. But he feels that most modern exercise regimes are not hitting the mark.Cordain compares modern hunter-gatherer societies to Paleolithic societies in terms of their…..
healthy mix of work and leisure activities
resistance to certain fatal illnesses
ability to withstand high temperatures
refusal to change their way of life
Read the text and choose the best answer.Art De Vany is 62, but physical fitness tests three years ago showed he had the body of a 32-year-old. Although De Vany is sceptical of such assessments, he knows he's in good shape. His former career as a professional baseball player may have something to do with it, but he attributes his physical prowess to an, exercise regime inspired by the lifestyles of our Palaeolithic ancestors.What do you learn about Art De Vany in the paragraph?
He believes he has inherited a strong body.
He is older than he appears to be.
He works as a professional sports player.
He frequently tests his health.
Read the text and choose the best answer.Avoiding pollution can be a fulltime job. Try not to inhale traffic fumes; keep away from chemical plants and building-sites; wear a mask when cycling. It is enough to make you want to stay at home. But that, according to a growing body of scientific evidence, would also be a bad idea. Research shows that levels of pollutants such as hazardous gases, particulate matter and other chemical ‘nasties’ are usually higher indoors than out, even in the most polluted cities. Since the average American spends 18 hours indoors for every hour outside, it looks as though many environmentalists may be attacking the wrong target.In the paragraph the writer suggests that…….
people should avoid working in cities.
Americans spend too little time outdoors.
there are several ways to avoid city pollution.
hazardous gases are concentrated in industrial suburbs.
Read the text and choose the best answer.Bad behaviourBut while rockets are fine for research, they cannot provide the protection from lightning strikes that everyone is looking for. The rockets cost around $1,200 each, can only be fired at a limited frequency and their failure rate is about 40 per cent. And even when they do trigger lightning, things still do not always go according to plan. ‘Lightning is not perfectly well behaved,’ says Bernstein. ‘Occasionally, it will take a branch and go someplace it wasn’t supposed to go.’And anyway, who would want to fire streams of rockets in a populated area? ‘What goes up must come down,’ points out Jean-Claude Diels of the . Diels is leading a project, which is backed by EPRI, to try to use lasers to discharge lightning safely - and safety is a basic requirement since no one wants to put themselves or their expensive equipment at risk. With around $500,000 invested so far, a promising system is just emerging from the laboratory.The idea began some 20 years ago, when high-powered lasers were revealing their ability to extract electrons out of atoms and create ions. If a laser could generate a line of ionisation in the air all the way up to a storm cloud, this conducting path could be used to guide lightning to Earth, before the electric field becomes strong enough to break down the air in an uncontrollable surge. To stop the laser itself being struck, it would not be pointed straight at the clouds. Instead it would be directed at a mirror, and from there into the sky. The mirror would be protected by placing lightning conductors close by. Ideally, the cloud-zapper (gun) would be cheap enough to be installed around all key power installations, and portable enough to be taken to international sporting events to beam up at brewing storm cloudsPower companies have given Diels enough money to develop his laser.
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.Bees do not see red; thus, flowers that attract bees tend to be blue, yellow, purple, or other colors. Many bee attractors also have nectar guides, which are spots near the center1 of each flower that reflect ultraviolet light, making it easier for the bees to find the nectar. Bees are also attracted to flowers with a mintlike or sweet smell. Snapdragons not only attract bees visually, they are adapted to appeal to certain bee species: snapdragons have a landing platform that, if the bee is the correct weight, opens—allowing access to the nectar and pollen.Pollinators play a major role in agriculture. While many staple crops such as rice, corn, canola, and wheat are self-pollinating or pollinated by the wind, farmers are dependent on pollinator species for many fruit, vegetable, nut, and seed crops. Over 30 percent of the world’s crops require the work of pollinator species. Bees are the most common agricultural pollinators, with crops including fruit trees such as apples and cherries; vegetables such as squash, beans, tomatoes, and eggplant; flowering shrubs and annual and perennial flowers; forage crops such as clover and alfalfa; and fiber2 crops such as cotton. Other pollinators include midges (cocoa), wasps (figs), moths (yucca, papaya), butterflies (asters, daisies, marigolds), and even a few species of bats (agave, palms, durians) and hummingbirds (fuchsia).Bees rarely respond to scent.
check_box FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and choose the best answer.Bees do not see red; thus, flowers that attract bees tend to be blue, yellow, purple, or other colors. Many bee attractors also have nectar guides, which are spots near the center1 of each flower that reflect ultraviolet light, making it easier for the bees to find the nectar. Bees are also attracted to flowers with a mintlike or sweet smell. Snapdragons not only attract bees visually, they are adapted to appeal to certain bee species: snapdragons have a landing platform that, if the bee is the correct weight, opens—allowing access to the nectar and pollen.Pollinators play a major role in agriculture. While many staple crops such as rice, corn, canola, and wheat are self-pollinating or pollinated by the wind, farmers are dependent on pollinator species for many fruit, vegetable, nut, and seed crops. Over 30 percent of the world’s crops require the work of pollinator species. Bees are the most common agricultural pollinators, with crops including fruit trees such as apples and cherries; vegetables such as squash, beans, tomatoes, and eggplant; flowering shrubs and annual and perennial flowers; forage crops such as clover and alfalfa; and fiber2 crops such as cotton. Other pollinators include midges (cocoa), wasps (figs), moths (yucca, papaya), butterflies (asters, daisies, marigolds), and even a few species of bats (agave, palms, durians) and hummingbirds (fuchsia).Most grain crops are pollinated by insects.
check_box FALSE
TRUE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.Bees do not see red; thus, flowers that attract bees tend to be blue, yellow, purple, or other colors. Many bee attractors also have nectar guides, which are spots near the center1 of each flower that reflect ultraviolet light, making it easier for the bees to find the nectar. Bees are also attracted to flowers with a mintlike or sweet smell. Snapdragons not only attract bees visually, they are adapted to appeal to certain bee species: snapdragons have a landing platform that, if the bee is the correct weight, opens—allowing access to the nectar and pollen.Pollinators play a major role in agriculture. While many staple crops such as rice, corn, canola, and wheat are self-pollinating or pollinated by the wind, farmers are dependent on pollinator species for many fruit, vegetable, nut, and seed crops. Over 30 percent of the world’s crops require the work of pollinator species. Bees are the most common agricultural pollinators, with crops including fruit trees such as apples and cherries; vegetables such as squash, beans, tomatoes, and eggplant; flowering shrubs and annual and perennial flowers; forage crops such as clover and alfalfa; and fiber2 crops such as cotton. Other pollinators include midges (cocoa), wasps (figs), moths (yucca, papaya), butterflies (asters, daisies, marigolds), and even a few species of bats (agave, palms, durians) and hummingbirds (fuchsia).Special markings on a flower help bees to locate the nectar.
check_box TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.Broad-tailed hummingbirds often nest in quaking aspens, slender deciduous trees with smooth, gray-green bark found in the Colorado Rockies of the western United States. After flying some 2,000 kilometers north from where they have wintered in Mexico, the hummingbirds need six weeks to build a nest, incubate their eggs, and raise the chicks. A second nest is feasible only if the first fails early in the season. Quality, not quantity, is what counts in hummingbird reproduction.A nest on the lowest intact branch of an aspen will give a hummingbird a good view, a clear flight path, and protection for her young. Male hummingbirds claim feeding territories in open meadows where, from late May through June, they mate with females coming to feed but take no part in nesting. Thus when the hen is away to feed, the nest is unguarded. While the smooth bark of the aspen trunk generally offers a poor grip for the claws of a hungry squirrel or weasel, aerial attacks, from a hawk, owl, or gray jay, are more likely.The choice of where to build the nest is based not only on the branch itself but also on what hangs over it. A crooked deformity in the nest branch, a second, unusually close branch overhead, or proximity to part of a trunk bowed by a past ice storm are features that provide shelter and make for an attractive nest site. Scarcely larger than a halved golf ball, the nest is painstakingly constructed of spiderwebs and plant down, decorated and camouflaged outside with paper-like bits of aspen bark held together with more strands of spider silk. By early June it will hold two pea-sized eggs, which each weigh one-seventh of the mother's weight, and in sixteen to nineteen days, two chicks. According to the passage, in what circumstances do hummingbirds build a second nest?
If the eggs are destroyed early in the season
If the winter is unusually warm
If the chicks in the first nest hatch early
If there is an unusually large supply of food
Read the text and choose the best answer.Broad-tailed hummingbirds often nest in quaking aspens, slender deciduous trees with smooth, gray-green bark found in the Colorado Rockies of the western United States. After flying some 2,000 kilometers north from where they have wintered in Mexico, the hummingbirds need six weeks to build a nest, incubate their eggs, and raise the chicks. A second nest is feasible only if the first fails early in the season. Quality, not quantity, is what counts in hummingbird reproduction.A nest on the lowest intact branch of an aspen will give a hummingbird a good view, a clear flight path, and protection for her young. Male hummingbirds claim feeding territories in open meadows where, from late May through June, they mate with females coming to feed but take no part in nesting. Thus when the hen is away to feed, the nest is unguarded. While the smooth bark of the aspen trunk generally offers a poor grip for the claws of a hungry squirrel or weasel, aerial attacks, from a hawk, owl, or gray jay, are more likely.The choice of where to build the nest is based not only on the branch itself but also on what hangs over it. A crooked deformity in the nest branch, a second, unusually close branch overhead, or proximity to part of a trunk bowed by a past ice storm are features that provide shelter and make for an attractive nest site. Scarcely larger than a halved golf ball, the nest is painstakingly constructed of spiderwebs and plant down, decorated and camouflaged outside with paper-like bits of aspen bark held together with more strands of spider silk. By early June it will hold two pea-sized eggs, which each weigh one-seventh of the mother's weight, and in sixteen to nineteen days, two chicks. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the male broad-tailed hummingbird?
check_box It is not involved in caring for the chicks.
It finds food for the female and the chicks.
It protects the nest while the female searches for food.
It shares nesting duties equally with the female.
Read the text and choose the best answer.Broad-tailed hummingbirds often nest in quaking aspens, slender deciduous trees with smooth, gray-green bark found in the Colorado Rockies of the western United States. After flying some 2,000 kilometers north from where they have wintered in Mexico, the hummingbirds need six weeks to build a nest, incubate their eggs, and raise the chicks. A second nest is feasible only if the first fails early in the season. Quality, not quantity, is what counts in hummingbird reproduction.A nest on the lowest intact branch of an aspen will give a hummingbird a good view, a clear flight path, and protection for her young. Male hummingbirds claim feeding territories in open meadows where, from late May through June, they mate with females coming to feed but take no part in nesting. Thus when the hen is away to feed, the nest is unguarded. While the smooth bark of the aspen trunk generally offers a poor grip for the claws of a hungry squirrel or weasel, aerial attacks, from a hawk, owl, or gray jay, are more likely.The choice of where to build the nest is based not only on the branch itself but also on what hangs over it. A crooked deformity in the nest branch, a second, unusually close branch overhead, or proximity to part of a trunk bowed by a past ice storm are features that provide shelter and make for an attractive nest site. Scarcely larger than a halved golf ball, the nest is painstakingly constructed of spiderwebs and plant down, decorated and camouflaged outside with paper-like bits of aspen bark held together with more strands of spider silk. By early June it will hold two pea-sized eggs, which each weigh one-seventh of the mother's weight, and in sixteen to nineteen days, two chicks. It can be inferred from the passage that the broad-tailed hummingbirds' eggs and chicks are most vulnerable to attacks by …….
Humans
Squirrels
Insects
Birds
Read the text and choose the best answer.Broad-tailed hummingbirds often nest in quaking aspens, slender deciduous trees with smooth, gray-green bark found in the Colorado Rockies of the western United States. After flying some 2,000 kilometers north from where they have wintered in Mexico, the hummingbirds need six weeks to build a nest, incubate their eggs, and raise the chicks. A second nest is feasible only if the first fails early in the season. Quality, not quantity, is what counts in hummingbird reproduction.A nest on the lowest intact branch of an aspen will give a hummingbird a good view, a clear flight path, and protection for her young. Male hummingbirds claim feeding territories in open meadows where, from late May through June, they mate with females coming to feed but take no part in nesting. Thus when the hen is away to feed, the nest is unguarded. While the smooth bark of the aspen trunk generally offers a poor grip for the claws of a hungry squirrel or weasel, aerial attacks, from a hawk, owl, or gray jay, are more likely.The choice of where to build the nest is based not only on the branch itself but also on what hangs over it. A crooked deformity in the nest branch, a second, unusually close branch overhead, or proximity to part of a trunk bowed by a past ice storm are features that provide shelter and make for an attractive nest site. Scarcely larger than a halved golf ball, the nest is painstakingly constructed of spiderwebs and plant down, decorated and camouflaged outside with paper-like bits of aspen bark held together with more strands of spider silk. By early June it will hold two pea-sized eggs, which each weigh one-seventh of the mother's weight, and in sixteen to nineteen days, two chicks. The word "clear" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to…..
exact
transparent
unobstructed
bright
Read the text and choose the best answer.Broad-tailed hummingbirds often nest in quaking aspens, slender deciduous trees with smooth, gray-green bark found in the Colorado Rockies of the western United States. After flying some 2,000 kilometers north from where they have wintered in Mexico, the hummingbirds need six weeks to build a nest, incubate their eggs, and raise the chicks. A second nest is feasible only if the first fails early in the season. Quality, not quantity, is what counts in hummingbird reproduction.A nest on the lowest intact branch of an aspen will give a hummingbird a good view, a clear flight path, and protection for her young. Male hummingbirds claim feeding territories in open meadows where, from late May through June, they mate with females coming to feed but take no part in nesting. Thus when the hen is away to feed, the nest is unguarded. While the smooth bark of the aspen trunk generally offers a poor grip for the claws of a hungry squirrel or weasel, aerial attacks, from a hawk, owl, or gray jay, are more likely.The choice of where to build the nest is based not only on the branch itself but also on what hangs over it. A crooked deformity in the nest branch, a second, unusually close branch overhead, or proximity to part of a trunk bowed by a past ice storm are features that provide shelter and make for an attractive nest site. Scarcely larger than a halved golf ball, the nest is painstakingly constructed of spiderwebs and plant down, decorated and camouflaged outside with paper-like bits of aspen bark held together with more strands of spider silk. By early June it will hold two pea-sized eggs, which each weigh one-seventh of the mother's weight, and in sixteen to nineteen days, two chicks. The word "counts" in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to….
check_box matters
weighs
numbers
estimates
Read the text and choose the best answer.Broad-tailed hummingbirds often nest in quaking aspens, slender deciduous trees with smooth, gray-green bark found in the Colorado Rockies of the western United States. After flying some 2,000 kilometers north from where they have wintered in Mexico, the hummingbirds need six weeks to build a nest, incubate their eggs, and raise the chicks. A second nest is feasible only if the first fails early in the season. Quality, not quantity, is what counts in hummingbird reproduction.A nest on the lowest intact branch of an aspen will give a hummingbird a good view, a clear flight path, and protection for her young. Male hummingbirds claim feeding territories in open meadows where, from late May through June, they mate with females coming to feed but take no part in nesting. Thus when the hen is away to feed, the nest is unguarded. While the smooth bark of the aspen trunk generally offers a poor grip for the claws of a hungry squirrel or weasel, aerial attacks, from a hawk, owl, or gray jay, are more likely.The choice of where to build the nest is based not only on the branch itself but also on what hangs over it. A crooked deformity in the nest branch, a second, unusually close branch overhead, or proximity to part of a trunk bowed by a past ice storm are features that provide shelter and make for an attractive nest site. Scarcely larger than a halved golf ball, the nest is painstakingly constructed of spiderwebs and plant down, decorated and camouflaged outside with paper-like bits of aspen bark held together with more strands of spider silk. By early June it will hold two pea-sized eggs, which each weigh one-seventh of the mother's weight, and in sixteen to nineteen days, two chicks. The word "they" in paragraph 2 refers to…….
females
territories
meadows
male hummingbirds
Read the text and choose the best answer.Broad-tailed hummingbirds often nest in quaking aspens, slender deciduous trees with smooth, gray-green bark found in the Colorado Rockies of the western United States. After flying some 2,000 kilometers north from where they have wintered in Mexico, the hummingbirds need six weeks to build a nest, incubate their eggs, and raise the chicks. A second nest is feasible only if the first fails early in the season. Quality, not quantity, is what counts in hummingbird reproduction.A nest on the lowest intact branch of an aspen will give a hummingbird a good view, a clear flight path, and protection for her young. Male hummingbirds claim feeding territories in open meadows where, from late May through June, they mate with females coming to feed but take no part in nesting. Thus when the hen is away to feed, the nest is unguarded. While the smooth bark of the aspen trunk generally offers a poor grip for the claws of a hungry squirrel or weasel, aerial attacks, from a hawk, owl, or gray jay, are more likely.The choice of where to build the nest is based not only on the branch itself but also on what hangs over it. A crooked deformity in the nest branch, a second, unusually close branch overhead, or proximity to part of a trunk bowed by a past ice storm are features that provide shelter and make for an attractive nest site. Scarcely larger than a halved golf ball, the nest is painstakingly constructed of spiderwebs and plant down, decorated and camouflaged outside with paper-like bits of aspen bark held together with more strands of spider silk. By early June it will hold two pea-sized eggs, which each weigh one-seventh of the mother's weight, and in sixteen to nineteen days, two chicks. What aspect of broad-tailed hummingbird behavior does the passage mainly discuss?
check_box Selection of nest sites
Mating habits
Caring for the young
Migration routes
Read the text and choose the best answer.By 870, the Vikings were settling Iceland. In 980, an Icelandic assembly found a man named Eric “the Red” Ericson guilty of murder and sent him into exile. Eric the Red responded by sailing to a large island to the west, which he called “Greenland.” An Icelandic saga mentions that people would be attracted to go to Greenland if it had a favorable2 name. Around 998, Eric the Red’s son, Leif “the Lucky” Ericson, and a small Viking fleet sailed west to North America. There they established the first European settlement in the New World, called “Vinland.”Vikings from Denmark, meanwhile, ravaged large swaths of England and France. In 866, a Viking “Great Army” landed in England, occupying much of the country’s north and east. They forced the English king to acknowledge their control of much of England under the so-called Danelaw. To the west, they conquered coastal portions of Ireland, and in 841 founded Dublin, today a major Irish city, but originally a Viking fort. The Vikings remained a major power in Ireland until the early eleventh century.When did Vikings establish a fort in Ireland?
check_box 841
866
980
998
Read the text and choose the best answer.By 870, the Vikings were settling Iceland. In 980, an Icelandic assembly found a man named Eric “the Red” Ericson guilty of murder and sent him into exile. Eric the Red responded by sailing to a large island to the west, which he called “Greenland.” An Icelandic saga mentions that people would be attracted to go to Greenland if it had a favorable2 name. Around 998, Eric the Red’s son, Leif “the Lucky” Ericson, and a small Viking fleet sailed west to North America. There they established the first European settlement in the New World, called “Vinland.”Vikings from Denmark, meanwhile, ravaged large swaths of England and France. In 866, a Viking “Great Army” landed in England, occupying much of the country’s north and east. They forced the English king to acknowledge their control of much of England under the so-called Danelaw. To the west, they conquered coastal portions of Ireland, and in 841 founded Dublin, today a major Irish city, but originally a Viking fort. The Vikings remained a major power in Ireland until the early eleventh century.When was Eric the Red convicted of a crime?
841
980
998
866
Read the text and choose the best answer.Caffeine does not alter the need for sleep, but it does offer a temporary solution to fatigue for people who need to stay alert. Research has shown that sleep- deprived individuals who consumed caffeine had improved memory and reasoning abilities, at least in the short term. Studies of runners and cyclists have shown that caffeine can improve their stamina—hence its addition to energy- boosting sports drinks.People who consume a lot of caffeine regularly may develop temporary withdrawal symptoms, headache being the most common, if they quit or cut back on it abruptly. Fortunately, these symptoms last only a day or two in most cases. Individuals who are more sensitive to the stimulatory side effects of caffeine may want to avoid it, but most doctors agree that the equivalent of three cups of coffee a day does not harm healthy people. There is no medical basis to give up daily caffeine and many reasons to include a moderate amount in one’s diet.Symptoms of caffeine withdrawal…….
check_box are usually short-lived.
can become an ongoing problem.
may last as long as a week.
lasts 1 month.
Read the text and choose the best answer.Children’s books are surprisingly relevant to contemporary life. Provided they are handled with care, few topics are considered off-limits for children. One senses that children’s writers relish the chance to discuss the whole area of topics and language. But Anne Fine, author of many award- winning children’s books is concerned that the British literati still ignore children’s culture. ‘It’s considered worthy but boring,’ she says.What is the main idea of this paragraph?
check_box the undervaluing of children’s society
Children are quick to decide whether they like or dislike a book
the impact of a particular fictional character on the sales of children’s books
Children will read many books by an author that they like.
Read the text and choose the best answer.CLASSIC TOURS - coach break informationLuggageWe ask you to keep luggage down to one medium-sized suitcase per person, but a small holdall can also be taken on board the coach.Seat AllocationRequests for particular seats can be made on most coach breaks when booking, but since allocations are made on a first come first served basis, early booking is advisable. When bookings are made with us you will be offered the best seats that are available on the coach at that time.Travel DocumentsWhen you have paid your deposit we will send to you all the necessary documents and labels, so that you receive them in good time before the coach break departure date. Certain documents, for example air or boat tickets, may have to be retained and your driver or courier will then issue them to you at the relevant point.Special DietsIf you require a special diet you must inform us at the time of booking with a copy of the diet. This will be notified to the hotel or hotels on your coach break, but on certain coach breaks the hotels used are tourist class and whilst offering value for money within the price range, they may not have the full facilities to cope with special diets. Any extra costs incurred must be paid to the hotel by yourself before departure from the hotel.AccommodationMany of our coach breaks now include, within the price, accommodation with private facilities, and this will be indicated on the coach break page. Other coach breaks have a limited number of rooms with private facilities which, subject to availability, can be reserved and guaranteed at the time of booking the supplementary charge shown in the price panel will be added to your account.On any coach break there are only a limited number of single rooms. When a single room is available it may be subject to a supplementary charge and this will be shown on the brochure page.EntertainmentSome of our hotels arrange additional entertainment which could include music, dancing, film shows, etc. The nature and frequency of the entertainment presented is at the discretion of the hotel and therefore not guaranteed and could be withdrawn if there is a lack of demand or insufficient numbers in the hotel.If you want to sit at the front of the coach…….
check_box book your seat well in advance
ask when you get on the coach.
arrive early on the departure date
avoid travelling at peak times.
Read the text and choose the best answer.CLASSIC TOURS - coach break informationLuggageWe ask you to keep luggage down to one medium-sized suitcase per person, but a small holdall can also be taken on board the coach.Seat AllocationRequests for particular seats can be made on most coach breaks when booking, but since allocations are made on a first come first served basis, early booking is advisable. When bookings are made with us you will be offered the best seats that are available on the coach at that time.Travel DocumentsWhen you have paid your deposit we will send to you all the necessary documents and labels, so that you receive them in good time before the coach break departure date. Certain documents, for example air or boat tickets, may have to be retained and your driver or courier will then issue them to you at the relevant point.Special DietsIf you require a special diet you must inform us at the time of booking with a copy of the diet. This will be notified to the hotel or hotels on your coach break, but on certain coach breaks the hotels used are tourist class and whilst offering value for money within the price range, they may not have the full facilities to cope with special diets. Any extra costs incurred must be paid to the hotel by yourself before departure from the hotel.AccommodationMany of our coach breaks now include, within the price, accommodation with private facilities, and this will be indicated on the coach break page. Other coach breaks have a limited number of rooms with private facilities which, subject to availability, can be reserved and guaranteed at the time of booking the supplementary charge shown in the price panel will be added to your account.On any coach break there are only a limited number of single rooms. When a single room is available it may be subject to a supplementary charge and this will be shown on the brochure page.EntertainmentSome of our hotels arrange additional entertainment which could include music, dancing, film shows, etc. The nature and frequency of the entertainment presented is at the discretion of the hotel and therefore not guaranteed and could be withdrawn if there is a lack of demand or insufficient numbers in the hotel.Your air tickets……
check_box may be held by your coach driver.
will be sent to your departure point.
must be collected before leaving
will be enclosed with other documents.
Read the text and choose the best answer.CLASSIC TOURS - coach break informationLuggageWe ask you to keep luggage down to one medium-sized suitcase per person, but a small holdall can also be taken on board the coach.Seat AllocationRequests for particular seats can be made on most coach breaks when booking, but since allocations are made on a first come first served basis, early booking is advisable. When bookings are made with us you will be offered the best seats that are available on the coach at that time.Travel DocumentsWhen you have paid your deposit we will send to you all the necessary documents and labels, so that you receive them in good time before the coach break departure date. Certain documents, for example air or boat tickets, may have to be retained and your driver or courier will then issue them to you at the relevant point.Special DietsIf you require a special diet you must inform us at the time of booking with a copy of the diet. This will be notified to the hotel or hotels on your coach break, but on certain coach breaks the hotels used are tourist class and whilst offering value for money within the price range, they may not have the full facilities to cope with special diets. Any extra costs incurred must be paid to the hotel by yourself before departure from the hotel.AccommodationMany of our coach breaks now include, within the price, accommodation with private facilities, and this will be indicated on the coach break page. Other coach breaks have a limited number of rooms with private facilities which, subject to availability, can be reserved and guaranteed at the time of bookingthe supplementary charge shown in the price panel will be added to your account.On any coach break there are only a limited number of single rooms. When a single room is available it may be subject to a supplementary charge and this will be shown on the brochure page.EntertainmentSome of our hotels arrange additional entertainment which could include music, dancing, film shows, etc. The nature and frequency of the entertainment presented is at the discretion of the hotel and therefore not guaranteed and could be withdrawn if there is a lack of demand or insufficient numbers in the hotel.Entertainment is available…….Entertainment is available……
check_box if there is the demand
for an additional cost
upon request.
at all hotels.
Read the text and choose the best answer.CLASSIC TOURS - coach break informationLuggageWe ask you to keep luggage down to one medium-sized suitcase per person, but a small holdall can also be taken on board the coach.Seat AllocationRequests for particular seats can be made on most coach breaks when booking, but since allocations are made on a first come first served basis, early booking is advisable. When bookings are made with us you will be offered the best seats that are available on the coach at that time.Travel DocumentsWhen you have paid your deposit we will send to you all the necessary documents and labels, so that you receive them in good time before the coach break departure date. Certain documents, for example air or boat tickets, may have to be retained and your driver or courier will then issue them to you at the relevant point.Special DietsIf you require a special diet you must inform us at the time of booking with a copy of the diet. This will be notified to the hotel or hotels on your coach break, but on certain coach breaks the hotels used are tourist class and whilst offering value for money within the price range, they may not have the full facilities to cope with special diets. Any extra costs incurred must be paid to the hotel by yourself before departure from the hotel.AccommodationMany of our coach breaks now include, within the price, accommodation with private facilities, and this will be indicated on the coach break page. Other coach breaks have a limited number of rooms with private facilities which, subject to availability, can be reserved and guaranteed at the time of bookingthe supplementary charge shown in the price panel will be added to your account.On any coach break there are only a limited number of single rooms. When a single room is available it may be subject to a supplementary charge and this will be shown on the brochure page.EntertainmentSome of our hotels arrange additional entertainment which could include music, dancing, film shows, etc. The nature and frequency of the entertainment presented is at the discretion of the hotel and therefore not guaranteed and could be withdrawn if there is a lack of demand or insufficient numbers in the hotel.If you need a special diet you should……If you need a special diet you shouldRead the text and choose the best answer.
check_box tell the coach company.
inform the hotel when you arrive.
pay extra with the booking
book tourist class.
Read the text and choose the best answer.CLASSIC TOURS - coach break informationLuggageWe ask you to keep luggage down to one medium-sized suitcase per person, but a small holdall can also be taken on board the coach.Seat AllocationRequests for particular seats can be made on most coach breaks when booking, but since allocations are made on a first come first served basis, early booking is advisable. When bookings are made with us you will be offered the best seats that are available on the coach at that time.Travel DocumentsWhen you have paid your deposit we will send to you all the necessary documents and labels, so that you receive them in good time before the coach break departure date. Certain documents, for example air or boat tickets, may have to be retained and your driver or courier will then issue them to you at the relevant point.Special DietsIf you require a special diet you must inform us at the time of booking with a copy of the diet. This will be notified to the hotel or hotels on your coach break, but on certain coach breaks the hotels used are tourist class and whilst offering value for money within the price range, they may not have the full facilities to cope with special diets. Any extra costs incurred must be paid to the hotel by yourself before departure from the hotel.AccommodationMany of our coach breaks now include, within the price, accommodation with private facilities, and this will be indicated on the coach break page. Other coach breaks have a limited number of rooms with private facilities which, subject to availability, can be reserved and guaranteed at the time of bookingthe supplementary charge shown in the price panel will be added to your account.On any coach break there are only a limited number of single rooms. When a single room is available it may be subject to a supplementary charge and this will be shown on the brochure page.EntertainmentSome of our hotels arrange additional entertainment which could include music, dancing, film shows, etc. The nature and frequency of the entertainment presented is at the discretion of the hotel and therefore not guaranteed and could be withdrawn if there is a lack of demand or insufficient numbers in the hotel.It may be necessary to pay extra for……..
check_box a bathroom.
boat tickets.
entertainment.
additional luggage
Read the text and choose the best answer.CLASSIC TOURS - coach break informationLuggageWe ask you to keep luggage down to one medium-sized suitcase per person, but a small holdall can also be taken on board the coach.Seat AllocationRequests for particular seats can be made on most coach breaks when booking, but since allocations are made on a first come first served basis, early booking is advisable. When bookings are made with us you will be offered the best seats that are available on the coach at that time.Travel DocumentsWhen you have paid your deposit we will send to you all the necessary documents and labels, so that you receive them in good time before the coach break departure date. Certain documents, for example air or boat tickets, may have to be retained and your driver or courier will then issue them to you at the relevant point.Special DietsIf you require a special diet you must inform us at the time of booking with a copy of the diet. This will be notified to the hotel or hotels on your coach break, but on certain coach breaks the hotels used are tourist class and whilst offering value for money within the price range, they may not have the full facilities to cope with special diets. Any extra costs incurred must be paid to the hotel by yourself before departure from the hotel.AccommodationMany of our coach breaks now include, within the price, accommodation with private facilities, and this will be indicated on the coach break page. Other coach breaks have a limited number of rooms with private facilities which, subject to availability, can be reserved and guaranteed at the time of bookingthe supplementary charge shown in the price panel will be added to your account.On any coach break there are only a limited number of single rooms. When a single room is available it may be subject to a supplementary charge and this will be shown on the brochure page.EntertainmentSome of our hotels arrange additional entertainment which could include music, dancing, film shows, etc. The nature and frequency of the entertainment presented is at the discretion of the hotel and therefore not guaranteed and could be withdrawn if there is a lack of demand or insufficient numbers in the hotel.With every booking Classic Tours guarantee you will be able to……
use your own personal bathroom
see a film if you want to.
request high quality meals.
take hand luggage on the coach.
Read the text and choose the best answer.De Vany views the body as non-linear and dynamic and says exercise should mix order and chaos. 'Chronic aerobic exercise overstrains the heart, reducing the chaotic variation in the heart rate which is essential to health,' he says. Likewise, most weight training is governed too much by routine and is too timeconsuming. He gives his own workout a chaotic character with ascending weights and descending repetitions. To these brief but intense gym workouts he adds a wide variety of other activities that vary randomly in intensity and duration. These include roller blading, bicycling, walking, sprinting, tennis, basketball, power walking, hitting softballs and trekking with a grandson on his shoulders.Which TWO opposing factors does De Vany say an exercise programmeshould include?
order and chaos
ascending weights and descending repetitions
intensity and duration
non-linear and dynamic
Read the text and choose the best answer.De Vany views the body as non-linear and dynamic and says exercise should mix order and chaos. 'Chronic aerobic exercise overstrains the heart, reducing the chaotic variation in the heart rate which is essential to health,' he says. Likewise, most weight training is governed too much by routine and is too timeconsuming. He gives his own workout a chaotic character with ascending weights and descending repetitions. To these brief but intense gym workouts he adds a wide variety of other activities that vary randomly in intensity and duration. These include roller blading, bicycling, walking, sprinting, tennis, basketball, power walking, hitting softballs and trekking with a grandson on his shoulders.Which type of activity does de Vany criticise as being harmful?
walking
trekking
aerobic exercise
hitting softballs
Read the text and choose the best answer.De Vany views the body as non-linear and dynamic and says exercise should mix order and chaos. 'Chronic aerobic exercise overstrains the heart, reducing the chaotic variation in the heart rate which is essential to health,' he says. Likewise, most weight training is governed too much by routine and is too timeconsuming. He gives his own workout a chaotic character with ascending weights and descending repetitions. To these brief but intense gym workouts he adds a wide variety of other activities that vary randomly in intensity and duration. These include roller blading, bicycling, walking, sprinting, tennis, basketball, power walking, hitting softballs and trekking with a grandson on his shoulders.Which type of exercise does De Vany practise on a regular basis?
hitting softballs
trekking
weight training
aerobic exercise
Read the text and choose the best answer.De Vany's advice to the modern exercise freak is to cut duration and frequency, and increase intensity. 'Our muscle fibre composition reveals that we are adapted to extreme intensity of effort,' says De Vany, a professor of economics at the Institute of Mathematical Behavioral Sciences at the University of California, Irvine. His approach to fitness combines Darwinian thinking with his interest in chaos theory and complex systems.This new science, which De Vany calls evolutionary fitness, is part of growing efforts to understand how the human body has been shaped by evolution, and to use this knowledge to improve our health and fitness. Proponents believe the key lies in the lifestyle of our hunter-gatherer ancestors because, they say, the vast majority of the human genome is still adapted to an ancient rhythm of life which swung between intense periods of activity and long stretches of inertia.What term does De Vany use to describe his approach to physicalexercise?
ancient rhythm
health and fitness
growing efforts
evolutionary fitness
Read the text and choose the best answer.Determining the definite cause of dyslexia is a difficult task since studies of the morphology of the brain are generally conducted in an autopsy. One hypothesis suggests that dyslexic children suffer from “strabismus,” the tendency of the eyes to focus on two different points. When reading, for example, one eye focuses on the beginning of the word and the other focuses on the end. This theory could explain why dyslexics have difficulty reading. Many dyslexic children read letters and words backwards, often mistaking a b for a d or reading was instead of saw. These reversals are normal for children under the age of six, but indicate a problem if they persist beyond the early elementary grades. Neurological research points to tiny flaws in the dyslexic brain called ectopias and microgyria. These flaws alter the structure of the cortex, the area of the brain that is responsible for connecting visual and audio processing. Genetic research, often in the form of twins studies, shows that dyslexia may be passed on in families.People with dyslexia often read in reverse.
check_box TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.Determining the definite cause of dyslexia is a difficult task since studies of the morphology of the brain are generally conducted in an autopsy. One hypothesis suggests that dyslexic children suffer from “strabismus,” the tendency of the eyes to focus on two different points. When reading, for example, one eye focuses on the beginning of the word and the other focuses on the end. This theory could explain why dyslexics have difficulty reading. Many dyslexic children read letters and words backwards, often mistaking a b for a d or reading was instead of saw. These reversals are normal for children under the age of six, but indicate a problem if they persist beyond the early elementary grades. Neurological research points to tiny flaws in the dyslexic brain called ectopias and microgyria. These flaws alter the structure of the cortex, the area of the brain that is responsible for connecting visual and audio processing. Genetic research, often in the form of twins studies, shows that dyslexia may be passed on in families.There is a tendency for dyslexia between twins.
check_box NOT GIVEN
TRUE
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.Dyslexia is a type of learning disorder that can often be compensated for with therapy and motivational techniques. Phonological training, which involves identifying and separating sound patterns, is the most common form of therapy used in the school system. Depending on the severity of the disorder, dyslexic children are pulled from regular classroom activities in order to work one-on-one with a language specialist. Studies have shown that activity in the right temporoparietal cortex tends to increase after sufficient phonological training. Improvements in visual focus can sometimes be achieved when students are given an eye patch to wear while they learn to read. Encouraging children to use many senses while reading also has proven benefits. Some teachers find that having students listen to a book on tape before reading the text can help with information processing as well.Scientists are looking for a drug treatment for dyslexia.
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.Dyslexia, also referred to as “specific reading disability,” predominantly affects a person’s ability to read and write. Dyslexics have difficulty connecting visual symbols (i.e., letters) with their corresponding sounds. Many people who suffer from dyslexia also have trouble with enunciation, organization, and short-term memory. Dyslexia is the most common learning disability in children. It is not related to intellectual ability, vision, or access to education. Approximately 5-10 percent of school-age children in North America suffer from the condition, with each case varying in severity. Children are generally diagnosed with dyslexia during the elementary school years when they are learning how to read and spell.Dyslexia is a disorder related to intelligence.
check_box FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and choose the best answer.Dyslexia, also referred to as “specific reading disability,” predominantly affects a person’s ability to read and write. Dyslexics have difficulty connecting visual symbols (i.e., letters) with their corresponding sounds. Many people who suffer from dyslexia also have trouble with enunciation, organization, and short-term memory. Dyslexia is the most common learning disability in children. It is not related to intellectual ability, vision, or access to education. Approximately 5-10 percent of school-age children in North America suffer from the condition, with each case varying in severity. Children are generally diagnosed with dyslexia during the elementary school years when they are learning how to read and spell.Dyslexia is usually diagnosed during a child’s first years of school.
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.Flowering plants have evolved a variety of methods for signaling2 their usefulness to pollinators or for otherwise making their work easier. Butterflies are attracted to flowers that are open during the day, are bright—typically red, yellow, or orange— and have a “landing platform.” In contrast, many moths are active at night and thus are attracted to flowers that are pale or white, have a strong fragrance, but also have broad areas to land on. Both butterflies and moths have long tongues and have coevolved with plants that have developed deep sources of nectar that are available only to certain species. Hummingbirds are also attracted by color3 especially by bright reds, and flowers that attract these tiny birds also have strong stems and are designed for pollen to be brushed on the hummingbirds’ heads as they sip nectar.Certain flowers have evolved to be pollinated by hummingbirds.
check_box TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.Flowering plants have evolved a variety of methods for signaling2 their usefulness to pollinators or for otherwise making their work easier. Butterflies are attracted to flowers that are open during the day, are bright—typically red, yellow, or orange— and have a “landing platform.” In contrast, many moths are active at night and thus are attracted to flowers that are pale or white, have a strong fragrance, but also have broad areas to land on. Both butterflies and moths have long tongues and have coevolved with plants that have developed deep sources of nectar that are available only to certain species. Hummingbirds are also attracted by color3 especially by bright reds, and flowers that attract these tiny birds also have strong stems and are designed for pollen to be brushed on the hummingbirds’ heads as they sip nectar.Moths are attracted by both color and scent.
check_box TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.He also argues that most people do not train the right muscles for that ultimately attractive - and adaptive - quality of symmetry. 'Symmetry is a reliable evolutionary clue to health,' he says. 'Tumours and pathologies produce gross asymmetries, and our love of symmetry reflects the reproductive success of our ancestors, who were sensitive to these clues.' He strives for the X-look - a symmetrical balance of mass in the shoulder girdle, upper chest and back, the calves and lower quads, two of the four large muscles at the front of the thighs. This also makes men look taller, he adds, 'another reliable evolutionary clue that women use to find good genes'.The hunter-gatherer lifestyle indicates that women should exercise only a little less intensely than men, says De Vany. 'Women are opportunistic hunters who go after small game when they come across it. They also climb trees to capture honey and snare birds. And have you ever seen how much work it is to dig out a deep tuber?' Women benefit enormously from strength work, he says. It increases their bone density and they get and stay leaner by building muscle mass. 'Today's women are so weak [compared with their female ancestors].'Female exercise programmes should vary according to the shape of the individual.
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.Less than three years ago, doom merchants were predicting that the growth in video games and the rise of the Internet would sound the death knell for children’s literature. But contrary to popular myth, children are reading more books than ever. A recent survey by Books Marketing found that children up to the age of 11 read on average for four hours a week, particularly girls.Moreover, the children’s book market, which traditionally was seen as a poor cousin to the more lucrative and successful adult market, has come into its own. Publishing houses are now making considerable profits on the back of new children’s books and children’s authors can now command significant advances. ‘Children’s books are going through an incredibly fertile period,’ says Wendy Cooling, a children’s literature consultant. ‘There’s a real buzz around them. Book clubs are happening, sales are good, and people are much more willing to listen to children’s authors.’The main growth area has been the market for eight to fourteen-year-olds, and there is little doubt that the boom has been fuelled by the bespectacled apprentice, Harry Potter. So influential has J. K. Rowling’s series of books been that they have helped to make reading fashionable for pre-teens. ‘Harry made it OK to be seen on a bus reading a book,’ says Cooling. ‘To a child, that is important.’ The current buzz around the publication of the fourth Harry Potter beats anything in the world of adult literature.For which age group have sales of books risen the most?
11
12
8
14
Read the text and choose the best answer.Less than three years ago, doom merchants were predicting that the growth in video games and the rise of the Internet would sound the death knell for children’s literature. But contrary to popular myth, children are reading more books than ever. A recent survey by Books Marketing found that children up to the age of 11 read on average for four hours a week, particularly girls.What is the main idea of this paragraph?
check_box an inaccurate forecast regarding the reading habits of children
Children will read many books by an author that they like.
We are experiencing a rise in the popularity of children’s literature.
Children are quick to decide whether they like or dislike a book
Read the text and choose the best answer.Niagara Falls, one of the most famous North American natural wonders, has long been a popular tourist destination. Tourists today flock to see the two falls that actually constitute Niagara Falls: the 173-foot-high Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in the Canadian province of Ontario and the 182-foot-high American Falls on the U.S. side of the river in the state of New York. Approximately 85 percent of the water that goes over the falls actually goes over Horseshoe Falls, with the rest going over American Falls.Most visitors come between April and October, and it is quite a popular activity to take a steamer out onto the river and right up to the base of the falls for a close-up view. It is also possible to get a spectacular view of the falls from the strategic locations along the Niagara River, such as Prospect Point or Table Rock, or from one of the four observation towers which have heights up to 500 feet.Tourists have been visiting Niagara Falls in large numbers since the 1800s; annual visitation now averages above 10 million visitors per year. Because of concern that all these tourists would inadvertently destroy the natural beauty of this scenic wonder, the state of New York in 1885 created Niagara Falls Park in order to protect the land surrounding American Falls. A year later Canada created Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of the Niagara, around Horseshoe Falls. With the area surrounding the falls under the jurisdiction of government agencies, appropriate steps could be taken to preserve the pristine beauty of the area.A "steamer” in paragraph 2 is probably
a bus
A walkway
A boat
A park
Read the text and choose the best answer.Niagara Falls, one of the most famous North American natural wonders, has long been a popular tourist destination. Tourists today flock to see the two falls that actually constitute Niagara Falls: the 173-foot-high Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in the Canadian province of Ontario and the 182-foot-high American Falls on the U.S. side of the river in the state of New York. Approximately 85 percent of the water that goes over the falls actually goes over Horseshoe Falls, with the rest going over American Falls.Most visitors come between April and October, and it is quite a popular activity to take a steamer out onto the river and right up to the base of the falls for a close-up view. It is also possible to get a spectacular view of the falls from the strategic locations along the Niagara River, such as Prospect Point or Table Rock, or from one of the four observation towers which have heights up to 500 feet.Tourists have been visiting Niagara Falls in large numbers since the 1800s; annual visitation now averages above 10 million visitors per year. Because of concern that all these tourists would inadvertently destroy the natural beauty of this scenic wonder, the state of New York in 1885 created Niagara Falls Park in order to protect the land surrounding American Falls. A year later Canada created Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of the Niagara, around Horseshoe Falls. With the area surrounding the falls under the jurisdiction of government agencies, appropriate steps could be taken to preserve the pristine beauty of the area.According to the passage, which of the following best describes Niagara Falls?
American Falls is considerably higher than Horseshoe Falls
Although the Niagara River flows through the United States and Canada, the falls are only in the United States.
Niagara Falls consists of two rivers, one Canadian and the other American
The Niagara River has two falls, one in Canada and one in the United States
Read the text and choose the best answer.Niagara Falls, one of the most famous North American natural wonders, has long been a popular tourist destination. Tourists today flock to see the two falls that actually constitute Niagara Falls: the 173-foot-high Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in the Canadian province of Ontario and the 182-foot-high American Falls on the U.S. side of the river in the state of New York. Approximately 85 percent of the water that goes over the falls actually goes over Horseshoe Falls, with the rest going over American Falls.Most visitors come between April and October, and it is quite a popular activity to take a steamer out onto the river and right up to the base of the falls for a close-up view. It is also possible to get a spectacular view of the falls from the strategic locations along the Niagara River, such as Prospect Point or Table Rock, or from one of the four observation towers which have heights up to 500 feet.Tourists have been visiting Niagara Falls in large numbers since the 1800s; annual visitation now averages above 10 million visitors per year. Because of concern that all these tourists would inadvertently destroy the natural beauty of this scenic wonder, the state of New York in 1885 created Niagara Falls Park in order to protect the land surrounding American Falls. A year later Canada created Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of the Niagara, around Horseshoe Falls. With the area surrounding the falls under the jurisdiction of government agencies, appropriate steps could be taken to preserve the pristine beauty of the area.According to the passage, why was Niagara Park created?
To show off the natural beauty of Niagara Falls
To protect the area around Niagara Falls
To force Canada to open Queen Victoria Park
To encourage tourists to visit Niagara Falls
Read the text and choose the best answer.Niagara Falls, one of the most famous North American natural wonders, has long been a popular tourist destination. Tourists today flock to see the two falls that actually constitute Niagara Falls: the 173-foot-high Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in the Canadian province of Ontario and the 182-foot-high American Falls on the U.S. side of the river in the state of New York. Approximately 85 percent of the water that goes over the falls actually goes over Horseshoe Falls, with the rest going over American Falls.Most visitors come between April and October, and it is quite a popular activity to take a steamer out onto the river and right up to the base of the falls for a close-up view. It is also possible to get a spectacular view of the falls from the strategic locations along the Niagara River, such as Prospect Point or Table Rock, or from one of the four observation towers which have heights up to 500 feet.Tourists have been visiting Niagara Falls in large numbers since the 1800s; annual visitation now averages above 10 million visitors per year. Because of concern that all these tourists would inadvertently destroy the natural beauty of this scenic wonder, the state of New York in 1885 created Niagara Falls Park in order to protect the land surrounding American Falls. A year later Canada created Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of the Niagara, around Horseshoe Falls. With the area surrounding the falls under the jurisdiction of government agencies, appropriate steps could be taken to preserve the pristine beauty of the area.The expression “right up” in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by
turn to the right
travel upstream
all the way up
follow correct procedures
Read the text and choose the best answer.Niagara Falls, one of the most famous North American natural wonders, has long been a popular tourist destination. Tourists today flock to see the two falls that actually constitute Niagara Falls: the 173-foot-high Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in the Canadian province of Ontario and the 182-foot-high American Falls on the U.S. side of the river in the state of New York. Approximately 85 percent of the water that goes over the falls actually goes over Horseshoe Falls, with the rest going over American Falls.Most visitors come between April and October, and it is quite a popular activity to take a steamer out onto the river and right up to the base of the falls for a close-up view. It is also possible to get a spectacular view of the falls from the strategic locations along the Niagara River, such as Prospect Point or Table Rock, or from one of the four observation towers which have heights up to 500 feet.Tourists have been visiting Niagara Falls in large numbers since the 1800s; annual visitation now averages above 10 million visitors per year. Because of concern that all these tourists would inadvertently destroy the natural beauty of this scenic wonder, the state of New York in 1885 created Niagara Falls Park in order to protect the land surrounding American Falls. A year later Canada created Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of the Niagara, around Horseshoe Falls. With the area surrounding the falls under the jurisdiction of government agencies, appropriate steps could be taken to preserve the pristine beauty of the area.The passage implies that tourists prefer to
come to Niagara Falls for a winter vacation
visit Niagara Falls during warmer weather
see the falls from a great distance
take a ride over the falls
Read the text and choose the best answer.Niagara Falls, one of the most famous North American natural wonders, has long been a popular tourist destination. Tourists today flock to see the two falls that actually constitute Niagara Falls: the 173-foot-high Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in the Canadian province of Ontario and the 182-foot-high American Falls on the U.S. side of the river in the state of New York. Approximately 85 percent of the water that goes over the falls actually goes over Horseshoe Falls, with the rest going over American Falls.Most visitors come between April and October, and it is quite a popular activity to take a steamer out onto the river and right up to the base of the falls for a close-up view. It is also possible to get a spectacular view of the falls from the strategic locations along the Niagara River, such as Prospect Point or Table Rock, or from one of the four observation towers which have heights up to 500 feet.Tourists have been visiting Niagara Falls in large numbers since the 1800s; annual visitation now averages above 10 million visitors per year. Because of concern that all these tourists would inadvertently destroy the natural beauty of this scenic wonder, the state of New York in 1885 created Niagara Falls Park in order to protect the land surrounding American Falls. A year later Canada created Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of the Niagara, around Horseshoe Falls. With the area surrounding the falls under the jurisdiction of government agencies, appropriate steps could be taken to preserve the pristine beauty of the area.The word "flock” in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by
come in large numbers
come by plane
come without knowing what they will see
come out of boredom
Read the text and choose the best answer.Niagara Falls, one of the most famous North American natural wonders, has long been a popular tourist destination. Tourists today flock to see the two falls that actually constitute Niagara Falls: the 173-foot-high Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in the Canadian province of Ontario and the 182-foot-high American Falls on the U.S. side of the river in the state of New York. Approximately 85 percent of the water that goes over the falls actually goes over Horseshoe Falls, with the rest going over American Falls.Most visitors come between April and October, and it is quite a popular activity to take a steamer out onto the river and right up to the base of the falls for a close-up view. It is also possible to get a spectacular view of the falls from the strategic locations along the Niagara River, such as Prospect Point or Table Rock, or from one of the four observation towers which have heights up to 500 feet.Tourists have been visiting Niagara Falls in large numbers since the 1800s; annual visitation now averages above 10 million visitors per year. Because of concern that all these tourists would inadvertently destroy the natural beauty of this scenic wonder, the state of New York in 1885 created Niagara Falls Park in order to protect the land surrounding American Falls. A year later Canada created Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of the Niagara, around Horseshoe Falls. With the area surrounding the falls under the jurisdiction of government agencies, appropriate steps could be taken to preserve the pristine beauty of the area.The word “jurisdiction" in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
control
taxation
view
assistance
Read the text and choose the best answer.Niagara Falls, one of the most famous North American natural wonders, has long been a popular tourist destination. Tourists today flock to see the two falls that actually constitute Niagara Falls: the 173-foot-high Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in the Canadian province of Ontario and the 182-foot-high American Falls on the U.S. side of the river in the state of New York. Approximately 85 percent of the water that goes over the falls actually goes over Horseshoe Falls, with the rest going over American Falls.Most visitors come between April and October, and it is quite a popular activity to take a steamer out onto the river and right up to the base of the falls for a close-up view. It is also possible to get a spectacular view of the falls from the strategic locations along the Niagara River, such as Prospect Point or Table Rock, or from one of the four observation towers which have heights up to 500 feet.Tourists have been visiting Niagara Falls in large numbers since the 1800s; annual visitation now averages above 10 million visitors per year. Because of concern that all these tourists would inadvertently destroy the natural beauty of this scenic wonder, the state of New York in 1885 created Niagara Falls Park in order to protect the land surrounding American Falls. A year later Canada created Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of the Niagara, around Horseshoe Falls. With the area surrounding the falls under the jurisdiction of government agencies, appropriate steps could be taken to preserve the pristine beauty of the area.What is the major point that the author is making in this passage?
Niagara Falls has had an interesting history.
A trip to the United States isn't complete without a visit to Niagara Falls.
It has been necessary to protect Niagara Falls from the many tourists who go there.
Niagara Falls can be viewed from either the American side or the Canadian side.
Read the text and choose the best answer.No more are children’s authors considered mere sentimentalists or failed adult writers. 'Some feted adult writers would kill for the sales,’ says Almond, who sold 42,392 copies of Skellig in 1999 alone. And advances seem to be growing too: UK publishing outfit Orion recently negotiated a six-figure sum from US company Scholastic for The Seeing Stone, a children's novel by Kevin Crossley-Holland, the majority of which will go to the author.It helps that once smitten, children are loyal and even fanatical consumers. Author Jacqueline Wilson says that children spread news of her books like a bushfire. ‘My average reader is a girl of ten,’ she explains. ‘They’re sociable and acquisitive. They collect. They have parties - where books are a good present. If they like something, they have to pass it on.’ After Rowling, Wilson is currently the best-selling children’s writer, and her sales have boomed over the past three years. She has sold more than three million books, but remains virtually invisible to adults, although most ten- year-old girls know about her.Who is currently the best-selling children’s writer?
check_box Rowling
Almond
Kevin
Wilson
Read the text and choose the best answer.People who consume a lot of caffeine regularly may develop temporary withdrawal symptoms, headache being the most common, if they quit or cut back on it abruptly. Fortunately, these symptoms last only a day or two in most cases. Individuals who are more sensitive to the stimulatory side effects of caffeine may want to avoid it, but most doctors agree that the equivalent of three cups of coffee a day does not harm healthy people. There is no medical basis to give up daily caffeine and many reasons to include a moderate amount in one’s diet.Drinking three cups of coffee a day……..
check_box will probably not cause problems.
is harmful to the health.
may be recommended by a doctor.
is good for the health.
Read the text and choose the best answer.Perhaps best known as fierce warriors, the Vikings were also the most far-ranging of peoples. In fact, the term Viking, in Old Norse, means “to go on an expedition.” From the late 700s until the eleventh century, Viking explorers journeyed from their native Norway, Denmark, and Sweden to many distant lands. They traveled1 as far west as Newfoundland in present-day Canada, and as far east as Baghdad.Those from Norway sailed west to the British Isles, and eventually across the Atlantic Ocean. During their first expedition, in 793, a force of Viking warriors sacked the famed abbey at Lindisfarne, on England’s northeast coast. In the 800s, groups of raiders went on to occupy the Shetland Islands, north of the British Isles and west of Norway, and the Orkney Islands off northern Scotland.When did Viking warriors raid an abbey on the coast of England?
793
800
600
700
Read the text and choose the best answer.Plants have evolved a variety of methods to entice pollinators to do their work. Many produce nectar, a sugary substance that pollinators use as food. A well- known example is the honeybee, which collects nectar as well as pollen for food. When a bee enters one flower, it brushes against the anther, and pollen grains are picked up by the surface of its body. When the bee enters a second flower and brushes against the stigma, some of that pollen comes in contact with the ovaries of the second plant, thus fertilizing it, resulting in seeds that contain genetic material from the male gametes of the first plant combined with the female reproductive organs of the second plant. Most bees, butterflies, and moths, as well as certain species of bats and birds, are attracted to nectar-producing flowers.Honeybees eat both nectar and pollen.
check_box TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.Pollinators play a major role in agriculture. While many staple crops such as rice, corn, canola, and wheat are self-pollinating or pollinated by the wind, farmers are dependent on pollinator species for many fruit, vegetable, nut, and seed crops. Over 30 percent of the world’s crops require the work of pollinator species. Bees are the most common agricultural pollinators, with crops including fruit trees such as apples and cherries; vegetables such as squash, beans, tomatoes, and eggplant; flowering shrubs and annual and perennial flowers; forage crops such as clover and alfalfa; and fiber2 crops such as cotton. Other pollinators include midges (cocoa), wasps (figs), moths (yucca, papaya), butterflies (asters, daisies, marigolds), and even a few species of bats (agave, palms, durians) and hummingbirds (fuchsia).Close to one third of the world’s harvest depends on animals for pollination.
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.Pollinators play a major role in agriculture. While many staple crops such as rice, corn, canola, and wheat are self-pollinating or pollinated by the wind, farmers are dependent on pollinator species for many fruit, vegetable, nut, and seed crops. Over 30 percent of the world’s crops require the work of pollinator species. Bees are the most common agricultural pollinators, with crops including fruit trees such as apples and cherries; vegetables such as squash, beans, tomatoes, and eggplant; flowering shrubs and annual and perennial flowers; forage crops such as clover and alfalfa; and fiber2 crops such as cotton. Other pollinators include midges (cocoa), wasps (figs), moths (yucca, papaya), butterflies (asters, daisies, marigolds), and even a few species of bats (agave, palms, durians) and hummingbirds (fuchsia).Recent declines in honeybees and in other pollinator species around the world have raised concerns about future food production, and many scientists have called for increased study of the role of pollinators, the agricultural and environmental changes involved in the declines, as well as the economic and environmental effects and ways to prevent further declines.Farmers in certain parts of the world have suffered economically because of the decline in the honeybee population.
check_box NOT GIVEN
FALSE
TRUE
Read the text and choose the best answer.Seldom is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike. Their electrical fury inflicts death or serious injury on around 500 people each year in the alone. As the clouds roll in, a leisurely round of golf can become a terrifying dice with death - out in the open, a lone golfer may be a lightning bolt’s most inviting target. And there is damage to property too. Lightning damage costs American power companies more than $100 million a year.But researchers in the United States and Japan are planning to hit back. Already in laboratory trials they have tested strategies for neutralising the power of thunderstorms, and this winter they will brave real storms, equipped with an armoury of lasers that they will be pointing towards the heavens to discharge thunderclouds before lightning can strike.The idea of forcing storm clouds to discharge their lightning on command is not new. In the early 1960s, researchers tried firing rockets trailing wires into thunderclouds to set up an easy discharge path for the huge electric charges that these clouds generate. The technique survives to this day at a test site in run by the of , with support from the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), based in . EPRI, which is funded by power companies, is looking at ways to protect the ’ power grid from lightning strikes. ‘We can cause the lightning to strike where we want it to using rockets,’ says Ralph Bernstein, manager of lightning projects at EPRI. The rocket site is providing precise measurements of lightning voltages and allowing engineers to check how electrical equipment bears up.According to the text, every year lightning…..
damages more than 100 American power companies.
kills or injures mainly golfers in the United States
kills or injures around 500 people throughout the world.
does considerable damage to buildings during thunderstorms
Read the text and choose the best answer.Seldom is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike. Their electrical fury inflicts death or serious injury on around 500 people each year in the alone. As the clouds roll in, a leisurely round of golf can become a terrifying dice with death - out in the open, a lone golfer may be a lightning bolt’s most inviting target. And there is damage to property too. Lightning damage costs American power companies more than $100 million a year.But researchers in the United States and Japan are planning to hit back. Already in laboratory trials they have tested strategies for neutralising the power of thunderstorms, and this winter they will brave real storms, equipped with an armoury of lasers that they will be pointing towards the heavens to discharge thunderclouds before lightning can strike.The idea of forcing storm clouds to discharge their lightning on command is not new. In the early 1960s, researchers tried firing rockets trailing wires into thunderclouds to set up an easy discharge path for the huge electric charges that these clouds generate. The technique survives to this day at a test site in run by the of , with support from the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), based in . EPRI, which is funded by power companies, is looking at ways to protect the ’ power grid from lightning strikes. ‘We can cause the lightning to strike where we want it to using rockets,’ says Ralph Bernstein, manager of lightning projects at EPRI. The rocket site is providing precise measurements of lightning voltages and allowing engineers to check how electrical equipment bears up.EPRI receives financial support from
check_box power companies
the University of Florida
the United States
Japan
Read the text and choose the best answer.Seldom is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike. Their electrical fury inflicts death or serious injury on around 500 people each year in the alone. As the clouds roll in, a leisurely round of golf can become a terrifying dice with death - out in the open, a lone golfer may be a lightning bolt’s most inviting target. And there is damage to property too. Lightning damage costs American power companies more than $100 million a year.But researchers in the United States and Japan are planning to hit back. Already in laboratory trials they have tested strategies for neutralising the power of thunderstorms, and this winter they will brave real storms, equipped with an armoury of lasers that they will be pointing towards the heavens to discharge thunderclouds before lightning can strike.The idea of forcing storm clouds to discharge their lightning on command is not new. In the early 1960s, researchers tried firing rockets trailing wires into thunderclouds to set up an easy discharge path for the huge electric charges that these clouds generate. The technique survives to this day at a test site in run by the of , with support from the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), based in . EPRI, which is funded by power companies, is looking at ways to protect the ’ power grid from lightning strikes. ‘We can cause the lightning to strike where we want it to using rockets,’ says Ralph Bernstein, manager of lightning projects at EPRI. The rocket site is providing precise measurements of lightning voltages and allowing engineers to check how electrical equipment bears up.Researchers at the University of Florida and at the University of New Mexico…..
are in opposition to each other.
are using the same techniques.
are employed by commercial companies
receive funds from the same source.
Read the text and choose the best answer.Seldom is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike. Their electrical fury inflicts death or serious injury on around 500 people each year in the alone. As the clouds roll in, a leisurely round of golf can become a terrifying dice with death - out in the open, a lone golfer may be a lightning bolt’s most inviting target. And there is damage to property too. Lightning damage costs American power companies more than $100 million a year.But researchers in the United States and Japan are planning to hit back. Already in laboratory trials they have tested strategies for neutralising the power of thunderstorms, and this winter they will brave real storms, equipped with an armoury of lasers that they will be pointing towards the heavens to discharge thunderclouds before lightning can strike.The idea of forcing storm clouds to discharge their lightning on command is not new. In the early 1960s, researchers tried firing rockets trailing wires into thunderclouds to set up an easy discharge path for the huge electric charges that these clouds generate. The technique survives to this day at a test site in run by the of , with support from the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), based in . EPRI, which is funded by power companies, is looking at ways to protect the ’ power grid from lightning strikes. ‘We can cause the lightning to strike where we want it to using rockets,’ says Ralph Bernstein, manager of lightning projects at EPRI. The rocket site is providing precise measurements of lightning voltages and allowing engineers to check how electrical equipment bears up.The main topic discussed in the text is……..
a variety of methods used in trying to control lightning strikes.
the effect of lightning on power supplies in the and in .
a laser technique used in trying to control lightning strikes
the damage caused to US golf courses and golf playersbylightning strikes.
Read the text and choose the best answer.Since the early eighties we have been only too aware of the devastating effects of large-scale environmental pollution. Such pollution is generally the result of poor government planning in many developing nations or the short-sighted, selfish policies of the already industrialised countries which encourage a minority of the world’s population to squander the majority of its natural resources.In the paragraph, the writer argues that pollution…..
check_box is caused by human self-interest.
results from poor relations between nations.
has increased since the eighties
is at its worst in industrialised countries.
Read the text and choose the best answer.The aim of such research is not, however, to encourage the use of gas masks when unloading the washing. Instead, it is to bring a sense of perspective to the debate about pollution. According to Dr Corsi, disproportionate effort is wasted campaigning against certain forms of outdoor pollution, when there is as much or more cause for concern indoors, right under people’s noses.As a result of their experiments, Dr Corsi’s team found that ………
check_box indoor pollution rivals outdoor pollution
gas masks are a useful protective device.
dishwashers are very efficient machines.
tap water is as polluted as bottled water.
Read the text and choose the best answer.The dingo started out as a quiet observer,’ writes Roland Breckwoldt, in A Very Elegant Animal: The Dingo, ‘but soon came to represent everything that was dark and dangerous on the continent.’ It is estimated that since sheep arrived in Australia, dingo numbers have increased a hundredfold. Though dingoes have been eradicated from parts of Australia, an educated guess puts the population at more than a million.Eventually government officials and graziers agreed that one well-maintained fence, placed on the outer rim of sheep country and paid for by taxes levied on woolgrowers, should supplant the maze of private netting. By 1960, three states joined their barriers to form a single dog fence.Dingoes are known to attack humans.
check_box NOT GIVEN
TRUE
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.The Fence is Australia’s version of the Great Wall of China, but even longer, erected to keep out hostile invaders, in this case hordes of yellow dogs. The empire it preserves is that of the woolgrowers, sovereigns of the world’s second largest sheep flock, after China’s - some 123 million head - and keepers of a wool export business worth four billion dollars. Never mind that more and more people - conservationists, politicians, taxpayers and animal lovers - say that such a barrier would never be allowed today on ecological grounds. With sections of it almost a hundred years old, the dog fence has become, as conservationist Lindsay Fair weather ruefully admits, ‘an icon of Australian frontier ingenuity’.On what point do the conservationists and politicians agree?
The fence acts as a useful frontier between states.
The number of dogs needs to be reduced.
Wool exports are vital to the economy.
The fence poses a threat to the environment
Read the text and choose the best answer.The Fence is Australia’s version of the Great Wall of China, but even longer, erected to keep out hostile invaders, in this case hordes of yellow dogs. The empire it preserves is that of the woolgrowers, sovereigns of the world’s second largest sheep flock, after China’s - some 123 million head - and keepers of a wool export business worth four billion dollars. Never mind that more and more people - conservationists, politicians, taxpayers and animal lovers - say that such a barrier would never be allowed today on ecological grounds. With sections of it almost a hundred years old, the dog fence has become, as conservationist Lindsay Fair weather ruefully admits, ‘an icon of Australian frontier ingenuity’.To appreciate this unusual outback I monument and to meet the people whose livelihoods depend on it, I spent part of an Australian autumn travelling the wire. It’s known by different names in different states: the Dog Fence in South Australia, the Border Fence in New South Wales and the Barrier Fence in Queensland. I would call it simply the Fence.The fence serves a different purpose in each state.
TRUE
NOT GIVEN
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.The Fence is Australia’s version of the Great Wall of China, but even longer, erected to keep out hostile invaders, in this case hordes of yellow dogs. The empire it preserves is that of the woolgrowers, sovereigns of the world’s second largest sheep flock, after China’s - some 123 million head - and keepers of a wool export business worth four billion dollars. Never mind that more and more people - conservationists, politicians, taxpayers and animal lovers - say that such a barrier would never be allowed today on ecological grounds. With sections of it almost a hundred years old, the dog fence has become, as conservationist Lindsay Fair weather ruefully admits, ‘an icon of Australian frontier ingenuity’.To appreciate this unusual outback I monument and to meet the people whose livelihoods depend on it, I spent part of an Australian autumn travelling the wire. It’s known by different names in different states: the Dog Fence in South Australia, the Border Fence in New South Wales and the Barrier Fence in Queensland. I would call it simply the Fence.Why did the author visit Australia?
to investigate how the fence was constructed
to study Australian farming methods
because he wanted to learn more about the wool industry
because he was interested in life around the fence
Read the text and choose the best answer.The Fence stays away from towns. Where it passes near a town, it has actually become a tourist attraction visited on bus tours. It marks the traditional dividing line between cattle and sheep. Inside, where the dingoes are legally classified as vermin, they are shot, poisoned and trapped. Sheep and dingoes do not mix and the Fence sends that message mile after mile.What is this creature that by itself threatens an entire industry, inflicting several millions of dollars of damage a year despite the presence of the world’s most obsessive fence? Cousin to the coyote and the jackal, descended from the Asian wolf, Canis lupus dingo is an introduced species of wild dog. Skeletal remains indicate that the dingo was introduced to Australia more than 3,500 years ago probably with Asian seafarers who landed on the north coast. The adaptable dingo spread rapidly and in a short time became the top predator, killing off all its marsupial competitors. The dingo looks like a small wolf with a long nose, short pointed ears and a bushy tail. Dingoes rarely bark; they yelp and howl. Standing about 22 inches at the shoulder - slightly taller than a coyote - the dingo is Australia’s largest land carnivore.The dingo is indigenous to Australia.
check_box FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and choose the best answer.The Fence stays away from towns. Where it passes near a town, it has actually become a tourist attraction visited on bus tours. It marks the traditional dividing line between cattle and sheep. Inside, where the dingoes are legally classified as vermin, they are shot, poisoned and trapped. Sheep and dingoes do not mix and the Fence sends that message mile after mile.What is this creature that by itself threatens an entire industry, inflicting several millions of dollars of damage a year despite the presence of the world’s most obsessive fence? Cousin to the coyote and the jackal, descended from the Asian wolf, Canis lupus dingo is an introduced species of wild dog. Skeletal remains indicate that the dingo was introduced to Australia more than 3,500 years ago probably with Asian seafarers who landed on the north coast. The adaptable dingo spread rapidly and in a short time became the top predator, killing off all its marsupial competitors. The dingo looks like a small wolf with a long nose, short pointed ears and a bushy tail. Dingoes rarely bark; they yelp and howl. Standing about 22 inches at the shoulder - slightly taller than a coyote - the dingo is Australia’s largest land carnivore.The fence is only partially successful.
check_box TRUE
NOT GIVEN
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.The hunter-gatherer lifestyle indicates that women should exercise only a little less intensely than men, says De Vany. 'Women are opportunistic hunters who go after small game when they come across it. They also climb trees to capture honey and snare birds. And have you ever seen how much work it is to dig out a deep tuber?' Women benefit enormously from strength work, he says. It increases their bone density and they get and stay leaner by building muscle mass. 'Today's women are so weak [compared with their female ancestors].'Of course, people vary. De Vany acknowledges that our ancestors were adapted to a variety of terrains and climates. Cordain points out that genetic differences between populations lead to different physical strengths. East Africans, for example, seem to be better endurance runners, West Africans better sprinters. But human genetic similarity greatly outweighs the variations. And because our genes have changed so very little since Palaeolithic times, if you want to be a lean, mean, survival machine why not try exercising like a caveman?Geographical features have played a role inhumanphysical development.
check_box TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.The hunter-gatherer lifestyle indicates that women should exercise only a little less intensely than men, says De Vany. 'Women are opportunistic hunters who go after small game when they come across it. They also climb trees to capture honey and snare birds. And have you ever seen how much work it is to dig out a deep tuber?' Women benefit enormously from strength work, he says. It increases their bone density and they get and stay leaner by building muscle mass. 'Today's women are so weak [compared with their female ancestors].'Of course, people vary. De Vany acknowledges that our ancestors were adapted to a variety of terrains and climates. Cordain points out that genetic differences between populations lead to different physical strengths. East Africans, for example, seem to be better endurance runners, West Africans better sprinters. But human genetic similarity greatly outweighs the variations. And because our genes have changed so very little since Palaeolithic times, if you want to be a lean, mean, survival machine why not try exercising like a caveman?The importance of genetic differences in deciding on an exercise programme is minimal.
TRUE
NOT GIVEN
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.The implications of indoor pollution for health are unclear. But before worrying about the problems caused by large-scale industry, it makes sense to consider the small-scale pollution at home and welcome international debate about this. Scientists investigating indoor pollution will gather next month in Edinburgh at the Indoor Air conference to discuss the problem. Perhaps unwisely, the meeting is being held indoors.Regarding the dangers of pollution, the writer believes that….
check_box there is a need for rational discussion
people should worry most about their work environment.
industrial pollution causes specific diseases.
indoor pollution is a recent phenomenon.
Read the text and choose the best answer.The intense private battles between woolgrowers and dingoes have usually served to define the Fence only in economic terms. It marks the difference between profit and loss. Yet the Fence casts a much broader ecological shadow for it has become a kind of terrestrial dam, deflecting the flow of animals inside and out. The ecological side effects appear most vividly at Sturt National Park. In 1845, explorer Charles Sturt led an expedition through these parts on a futile search for an inland sea. For Sturt and other early explorers, it was a rare event to see a kangaroo. Now they are ubiquitous for without a native predator the kangaroo population has exploded inside the Fence. Kangaroos are now cursed more than dingoes. They have become the rivals of sheep, competing for water and grass. In response state governments cull* more than three million kangaroos a year to keep Australia’s national symbol from overrunning the pastoral lands. Park officials, who recognise that the fence is to blame, respond to the excess of kangaroos by saying ‘The fence is there, and we have to live with it.’How do the park officials feel about the fence?
angry
pleased
philosophical
proud
Read the text and choose the best answer.The intense private battles between woolgrowers and dingoes have usually served to define the Fence only in economic terms. It marks the difference between profit and loss. Yet the Fence casts a much broader ecological shadow for it has become a kind of terrestrial dam, deflecting the flow of animals inside and out. The ecological side effects appear most vividly at Sturt National Park. In 1845, explorer Charles Sturt led an expedition through these parts on a futile search for an inland sea. For Sturt and other early explorers, it was a rare event to see a kangaroo. Now they are ubiquitous for without a native predator the kangaroo population has exploded inside the Fence. Kangaroos are now cursed more than dingoes. They have become the rivals of sheep, competing for water and grass. In response state governments cull* more than three million kangaroos a year to keep Australia’s national symbol from overrunning the pastoral lands. Park officials, who recognise that the fence is to blame, respond to the excess of kangaroos by saying ‘The fence is there, and we have to live with it.’Kangaroos have increased in number because of the fence.
check_box TRUE
NOT GIVEN
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.The intense private battles between woolgrowers and dingoes have usually served to define the Fence only in economic terms. It marks the difference between profit and loss. Yet the Fence casts a much broader ecological shadow for it has become a kind of terrestrial dam, deflecting the flow of animals inside and out. The ecological side effects appear most vividly at Sturt National Park. In 1845, explorer Charles Sturt led an expedition through these parts on a futile search for an inland sea. For Sturt and other early explorers, it was a rare event to see a kangaroo. Now they are ubiquitous for without a native predator the kangaroo population has exploded inside the Fence. Kangaroos are now cursed more than dingoes. They have become the rivals of sheep, competing for water and grass. In response state governments cull* more than three million kangaroos a year to keep Australia’s national symbol from overrunning the pastoral lands. Park officials, who recognise that the fence is to blame, respond to the excess of kangaroos by saying ‘The fence is there, and we have to live with it.’The author does not agree with the culling of kangaroos.
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and choose the best answer.The latest study, conducted by two environmental engineers, Richard Corsi and Cynthia Howard-Reed, of the University of Texas in Austin, and published in Environmental Science and Technology, suggests that it is the process of keeping clean that may be making indoor pollution worse. The researchers found that baths, showers, dishwashers and washing machines can all be significant sources of indoor pollution, because they extract trace amounts of chemicals from the water that they use and transfer them to the air.The Corsi research team hypothesised that…..
pollution is caused by dishwashers and baths.
toxic chemicals can pass from air to water.
household appliances are poorly designed.
city water contains insufficient chlorine.
Read the text and choose the best answer.The main growth area has been the market for eight to fourteen-year-olds, and there is little doubt that the boom has been fuelled by the bespectacled apprentice, Harry Potter. So influential has J. K. Rowling’s series of books been that they have helped to make reading fashionable for pre-teens. ‘Harry made it OK to be seen on a bus reading a book,’ says Cooling. ‘To a child, that is important.’ The current buzz around the publication of the fourth Harry Potter beats anything in the world of adult literature.What is the main idea of this paragraph?
an inaccurate forecast regarding the reading habits of children
the impact of a particular fictional character on the sales of children’s books
Children will read many books by an author that they like.
Children are quick to decide whether they like or dislike a book
Read the text and choose the best answer.The woolgrowers’ war against dingoes, which is similar to the sheep ranchers’ rage against coyotes in the US, started not long after the first European settlers disembarked in 1788, bringing with them a cargo of sheep. Dingoes officially became outlaws in 1830 when governments placed a bounty on their heads. Today bounties for problem dogs killing sheep inside the Fence can reach $500. As pioneers penetrated the interior with their flocks of sheep, fences replaced shepherds until, by the end of the 19th century, thousands of miles of barrier fencing crisscrossed the vast grazing lands.‘The dingo started out as a quiet observer,’ writes Roland Breckwoldt, in A Very Elegant Animal: The Dingo, ‘but soon came to represent everything that was dark and dangerous on the continent.’ It is estimated that since sheep arrived in Australia, dingo numbers have increased a hundredfold. Though dingoes have been eradicated from parts of Australia, an educated guess puts the population at more than a million.When did the authorities first acknowledge the dingo problem?
check_box 1830
1845
1788
1960
Read the text and choose the best answer.There is a common expression in English language referring to a blue moon. When people say that something happens "only once in blue moon,” they mean that it happens only very rarely, once in a great while. This expression has been around for at least a century and a half; there are references to this expression that date from the second half of the nineteenth century.The expression " a blue moon" has come to refer to the second full moon occurring in any given calendar month. A second full moon is not called a blue moon because it is particularly blue or is any different in hue from the first full moon of the month. Instead, it is called a blue moon because it is so rare- The moon needs a little more than 29 days to complete the cycle from full moon to full moon. Because every month except Febmary has more than 29 days, every month will have at least one full moon (except February, which will have a full moon unless there is a full moon at the very end of January and another full moon at the very beginning of March). It is or the occasion when a given calendar month has a second full moon that a blue moon occurs. This does not happen very often, only three or four times in a decade.The blue moons of today are called blue moons because of their rarity and not because of their colon however, the expression “blue moon” may have come into existence in reference to unusual circumstances in which the moon actually appeared blue. Certain natural phenomena of gigantic proportions can actually change the appearance of the moon from Earth. The eruption of the Krakatao volcano in 1883 left dust particles in the atmosphere, which clouded the sun and gave the moon a bluish tint. This particular occurrence of the blue moon may have given rise to the expression that we use today. Another example occurred more than a century later. When Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines in 1991, the moon again took on a blue tint.How long has the expression “once in a blue moon" been around?
For 200 years
For around 50 years
For less than 100 years
For more than 100 years
Read the text and choose the best answer.There is a common expression in English language referring to a blue moon. When people say that something happens "only once in blue moon,” they mean that it happens only very rarely, once in a great while. This expression has been around for at least a century and a half; there are references to this expression that date from the second half of the nineteenth century.The expression " a blue moon" has come to refer to the second full moon occurring in any given calendar month. A second full moon is not called a blue moon because it is particularly blue or is any different in hue from the first full moon of the month. Instead, it is called a blue moon because it is so rare- The moon needs a little more than 29 days to complete the cycle from full moon to full moon. Because every month except Febmary has more than 29 days, every month will have at least one full moon (except February, which will have a full moon unless there is a full moon at the very end of January and another full moon at the very beginning of March). It is or the occasion when a given calendar month has a second full moon that a blue moon occurs. This does not happen very often, only three or four times in a decade.The blue moons of today are called blue moons because of their rarity and not because of their colon however, the expression “blue moon” may have come into existence in reference to unusual circumstances in which the moon actually appeared blue. Certain natural phenomena of gigantic proportions can actually change the appearance of the moon from Earth. The eruption of the Krakatao volcano in 1883 left dust particles in the atmosphere, which clouded the sun and gave the moon a bluish tint. This particular occurrence of the blue moon may have given rise to the expression that we use today. Another example occurred more than a century later. When Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines in 1991, the moon again took on a blue tint.The word “hue" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
date
size
color
shape
Read the text and choose the best answer.There is a common expression in English language referring to a blue moon. When people say that something happens "only once in blue moon,” they mean that it happens only very rarely, once in a great while. This expression has been around for at least a century and a half; there are references to this expression that date from the second half of the nineteenth century.The expression " a blue moon" has come to refer to the second full moon occurring in any given calendar month. A second full moon is not called a blue moon because it is particularly blue or is any different in hue from the first full moon of the month. Instead, it is called a blue moon because it is so rare- The moon needs a little more than 29 days to complete the cycle from full moon to full moon. Because every month except Febmary has more than 29 days, every month will have at least one full moon (except February, which will have a full moon unless there is a full moon at the very end of January and another full moon at the very beginning of March). It is or the occasion when a given calendar month has a second full moon that a blue moon occurs. This does not happen very often, only three or four times in a decade.The blue moons of today are called blue moons because of their rarity and not because of their colon however, the expression “blue moon” may have come into existence in reference to unusual circumstances in which the moon actually appeared blue. Certain natural phenomena of gigantic proportions can actually change the appearance of the moon from Earth. The eruption of the Krakatao volcano in 1883 left dust particles in the atmosphere, which clouded the sun and gave the moon a bluish tint. This particular occurrence of the blue moon may have given rise to the expression that we use today. Another example occurred more than a century later. When Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines in 1991, the moon again took on a blue tint.This passage is about..........
an idiomatic expression
a phase of the moon
a month on the calendar
an unusual color
Read the text and choose the best answer.There is a common expression in English language referring to a blue moon. When people say that something happens "only once in blue moon,” they mean that it happens only very rarely, once in a great while. This expression has been around for at least a century and a half; there are references to this expression that date from the second half of the nineteenth century.The expression " a blue moon" has come to refer to the second full moon occurring in any given calendar month. A second full moon is not called a blue moon because it is particularly blue or is any different in hue from the first full moon of the month. Instead, it is called a blue moon because it is so rare- The moon needs a little more than 29 days to complete the cycle from full moon to full moon. Because every month except Febmary has more than 29 days, every month will have at least one full moon (except February, which will have a full moon unless there is a full moon at the very end of January and another full moon at the very beginning of March). It is or the occasion when a given calendar month has a second full moon that a blue moon occurs. This does not happen very often, only three or four times in a decade.The blue moons of today are called blue moons because of their rarity and not because of their color however, the expression “blue moon” may have come into existence in reference to unusual circumstances in which the moon actually appeared blue. Certain natural phenomena of gigantic proportions can actually change the appearance of the moon from Earth. The eruption of the Krakatao volcano in 1883 left dust particles in the atmosphere, which clouded the sun and gave the moon a bluish tint. This particular occurrence of the blue moon may have given rise to the expression that we use today. Another example occurred more than a century later. When Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines in 1991, the moon again took on a blue tint.According to the passage, the moon actually looked blue
when it occurred late in the month
several times a year
during the month of February
after large volcanic eruptions
Read the text and choose the best answer.There is a common expression in English language referring to a blue moon. When people say that something happens "only once in blue moon,” they mean that it happens only very rarely, once in a great while. This expression has been around for at least a century and a half; there are references to this expression that date from the second half of the nineteenth century.The expression " a blue moon" has come to refer to the second full moon occurring in any given calendar month. A second full moon is not called a blue moon because it is particularly blue or is any different in hue from the first full moon of the month. Instead, it is called a blue moon because it is so rare- The moon needs a little more than 29 days to complete the cycle from full moon to full moon. Because every month except Febmary has more than 29 days, every month will have at least one full moon (except February, which will have a full moon unless there is a full moon at the very end of January and another full moon at the very beginning of March). It is or the occasion when a given calendar month has a second full moon that a blue moon occurs. This does not happen very often, only three or four times in a decade.The blue moons of today are called blue moons because of their rarity and not because of their color however, the expression “blue moon” may have come into existence in reference to unusual circumstances in which the moon actually appeared blue. Certain natural phenomena of gigantic proportions can actually change the appearance of the moon from Earth. The eruption of the Krakatao volcano in 1883 left dust particles in the atmosphere, which clouded the sun and gave the moon a bluish tint. This particular occurrence of the blue moon may have given rise to the expression that we use today. Another example occurred more than a century later. When Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines in 1991, the moon again took on a blue tint.How many blue moons would there most likely be in a century?
100
35
70
4
Read the text and choose the best answer.There is a common expression in English language referring to a blue moon. When people say that something happens "only once in blue moon,” they mean that it happens only very rarely, once in a great while. This expression has been around for at least a century and a half; there are references to this expression that date from the second half of the nineteenth century.The expression " a blue moon" has come to refer to the second full moon occurring in any given calendar month. A second full moon is not called a blue moon because it is particularly blue or is any different in hue from the first full moon of the month. Instead, it is called a blue moon because it is so rare- The moon needs a little more than 29 days to complete the cycle from full moon to full moon. Because every month except Febmary has more than 29 days, every month will have at least one full moon (except February, which will have a full moon unless there is a full moon at the very end of January and another full moon at the very beginning of March). It is or the occasion when a given calendar month has a second full moon that a blue moon occurs. This does not happen very often, only three or four times in a decade.The blue moons of today are called blue moons because of their rarity and not because of their color however, the expression “blue moon” may have come into existence in reference to unusual circumstances in which the moon actually appeared blue. Certain natural phenomena of gigantic proportions can actually change the appearance of the moon from Earth. The eruption of the Krakatao volcano in 1883 left dust particles in the atmosphere, which clouded the sun and gave the moon a bluish tint. This particular occurrence of the blue moon may have given rise to the expression that we use today. Another example occurred more than a century later. When Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines in 1991, the moon again took on a blue tint.The expression "given rise to” in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by
elevated the level of
created a need for
spurred the creation of
brightened the color of
Read the text and choose the best answer.There is a common expression in English language referring to a blue moon. When people say that something happens "only once in blue moon,” they mean that it happens only very rarely, once in a great while. This expression has been around for at least a century and a half; there are references to this expression that date from the second half of the nineteenth century.The expression " a blue moon" has come to refer to the second full moon occurring in any given calendar month. A second full moon is not called a blue moon because it is particularly blue or is any different in hue from the first full moon of the month. Instead, it is called a blue moon because it is so rare- The moon needs a little more than 29 days to complete the cycle from full moon to full moon. Because every month except Febmary has more than 29 days, every month will have at least one full moon (except February, which will have a full moon unless there is a full moon at the very end of January and another full moon at the very beginning of March). It is or the occasion when a given calendar month has a second full moon that a blue moon occurs. This does not happen very often, only three or four times in a decade.The blue moons of today are called blue moons because of their rarity and not because of their color however, the expression “blue moon” may have come into existence in reference to unusual circumstances in which the moon actually appeared blue. Certain natural phenomena of gigantic proportions can actually change the appearance of the moon from Earth. The eruption of the Krakatao volcano in 1883 left dust particles in the atmosphere, which clouded the sun and gave the moon a bluish tint. This particular occurrence of the blue moon may have given rise to the expression that we use today. Another example occurred more than a century later. When Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines in 1991, the moon again took on a blue tint.Which of the following might be the date of a “blue moon"?
January 1
April 15
December 31
February 28
Read the text and choose the best answer.There is a common expression in English language referring to a blue moon. When people say that something happens "only once in blue moon,” they mean that it happens only very rarely, once in a great while. This expression has been around for at least a century and a half; there are references to this expression that date from the second half of the nineteenth century.The expression " a blue moon" has come to refer to the second full moon occurring in any given calendar month. A second full moon is not called a blue moon because it is particularly blue or is any different in hue from the first full moon of the month. Instead, it is called a blue moon because it is so rare- The moon needs a little more than 29 days to complete the cycle from full moon to full moon. Because every month except February has more than 29 days, every month will have at least one full moon (except February, which will have a full moon unless there is a full moon at the very end of January and another full moon at the very beginning of March). It is or the occasion when a given calendar month has a second full moon that a blue moon occurs. This does not happen very often, only three or four times in a decade.The blue moons of today are called blue moons because of their rarity and not because of their colon however, the expression “blue moon” may have come into existence in reference to unusual circumstances in which the moon actually appeared blue. Certain natural phenomena of gigantic proportions can actually change the appearance of the moon from Earth. The eruption of the Krakatao volcano in 1883 left dust particles in the atmosphere, which clouded the sun and gave the moon a bluish tint. This particular occurrence of the blue moon may have given rise to the expression that we use today. Another example occurred more than a century later. When Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines in 1991, the moon again took on a blue tint.A blue moon could best be described as
a full moon that is blue in color
a new moon that is not blue in color
a new moon that is blue in color
a full moon that is not blue in color
Read the text and choose the best answer.These stories of killer bees in the news in recent years have attracted a lot of attention as bees have made their way from South America to North America. Killer bees are reputed to be extremely aggressive in nature, although experts say that their aggression may have been somewhat inflated.The killer bee is a hybrid—or combination- of the very mild European strain of honeybee and the considerably more aggressive African bee, which was created when African strain was imported into Brazil in 1955. The African bees were brought into Brazil because their aggression was considered an advantage: they were far more productive than their European counterparts in that they spent a higher percentage of their time working and continued working longer in inclement weather than did the European bees. These killer bees have been known to attack humans and animals, and some fatalities have occurred. Experts point out, however, that the mixed breed known as the killer bee is actually not at all as aggressive as the pure African bee. They also point out that the attacks have a chemical cause. A killer bee stings only when it has been disturbed; it is not aggressive by nature. However, after a disturbed bee stings and flies away, it leaves its stinger embedded in the victim. In the vicera attached to the embedded stinger is the chemical isoamyl acetate, which has an odor that attracts other bees. As other bees approach the victim of the original sting, the victim tends to panic, thus disturbing other bees and causing them to sting. The new sting create more of the chemical isoamyl acetate, which attracts more bees and increases the panic level of the victim. Killer bees tend to travel in large cluster or swarms and thus respond in large numbers to the production of isoamyl acetate.It can be inferred from the passage that the killer bee
traveled from Brazil to Africa in 1955
was a predecessor of the African bee
did not exist early in the twentieth century
was carried from Africa to Brazil in 1955
Read the text and choose the best answer.These stories of killer bees in the news in recent years have attracted a lot of attention as bees have made their way from South America to North America. Killer bees are reputed to be extremely aggressive in nature, although experts say that their aggression may have been somewhat inflated.The killer bee is a hybrid—or combination- of the very mild European strain of honeybee and the considerably more aggressive African bee, which was created when African strain was imported into Brazil in 1955. The African bees were brought into Brazil because their aggression was considered an advantage: they were far more productive than their European counterparts in that they spent a higher percentage of their time working and continued working longer in inclement weather than did the European bees. These killer bees have been known to attack humans and animals, and some fatalities have occurred. Experts point out, however, that the mixed breed known as the killer bee is actually not at all as aggressive as the pure African bee. They also point out that the attacks have a chemical cause. A killer bee stings only when it has been disturbed; it is not aggressive by nature. However, after a disturbed bee stings and flies away, it leaves its stinger embedded in the victim. In the vicera attached to the embedded stinger is the chemical isoamyl acetate, which has an odor that attracts other bees. As other bees approach the victim of the original sting, the victim tends to panic, thus disturbing other bees and causing them to sting. The new sting create more of the chemical isoamyl acetate, which attracts more bees and increases the panic level of the victim. Killer bees tend to travel in large cluster or swarms and thus respond in large numbers to the production of isoamyl acetate.It is stated in the passage that killer bees
always attack African bees
are more deadly than African bees
are less aggressive than African bees
never attack animals
Read the text and choose the best answer.These stories of killer bees in the news in recent years have attracted a lot of attention as bees have made their way from South America to North America. Killer bees are reputed to be extremely aggressive in nature, although experts say that their aggression may have been somewhat inflated.The killer bee is a hybrid—or combination- of the very mild European strain of honeybee and the considerably more aggressive African bee, which was created when African strain was imported into Brazil in 1955. The African bees were brought into Brazil because their aggression was considered an advantage: they were far more productive than their European counterparts in that they spent a higher percentage of their time working and continued working longer in inclement weather than did the European bees. These killer bees have been known to attack humans and animals, and some fatalities have occurred. Experts point out, however, that the mixed breed known as the killer bee is actually not at all as aggressive as the pure African bee. They also point out that the attacks have a chemical cause. A killer bee stings only when it has been disturbed; it is not aggressive by nature. However, after a disturbed bee stings and flies away, it leaves its stinger embedded in the victim. In the vicera attached to the embedded stinger is the chemical isoamyl acetate, which has an odor that attracts other bees. As other bees approach the victim of the original sting, the victim tends to panic, thus disturbing other bees and causing them to sting. The new sting create more of the chemical isoamyl acetate, which attracts more bees and increases the panic level of the victim. Killer bees tend to travel in large cluster or swarms and thus respond in large numbers to the production of isoamyl acetate.The main idea of this passage is that killer bees
are a hybrid rather than a pure breed
are not as aggressive as their reputation suggests
have been moving unexpectedly rapidly through the Americas
have been in the news a lot recently
Read the text and choose the best answer.These stories of killer bees in the news in recent years have attracted a lot of attention as bees have made their way from South America to North America. Killer bees are reputed to be extremely aggressive in nature, although experts say that their aggression may have been somewhat inflated.The killer bee is a hybrid—or combination- of the very mild European strain of honeybee and the considerably more aggressive African bee, which was created when African strain was imported into Brazil in 1955. The African bees were brought into Brazil because their aggression was considered an advantage: they were far more productive than their European counterparts in that they spent a higher percentage of their time working and continued working longer in inclement weather than did the European bees. These killer bees have been known to attack humans and animals, and some fatalities have occurred. Experts point out, however, that the mixed breed known as the killer bee is actually not at all as aggressive as the pure African bee. They also point out that the attacks have a chemical cause. A killer bee stings only when it has been disturbed; it is not aggressive by nature. However, after a disturbed bee stings and flies away, it leaves its stinger embedded in the victim. In the vicera attached to the embedded stinger is the chemical isoamyl acetate, which has an odor that attracts other bees. As other bees approach the victim of the original sting, the victim tends to panic, thus disturbing other bees and causing them to sting. The new sting create more of the chemical isoamyl acetate, which attracts more bees and increases the panic level of the victim. Killer bees tend to travel in large cluster or swarms and thus respond in large numbers to the production of isoamyl acetate.The pronoun "They" in paragraph 3 refers to
humans and animals
killer bees
experts
fatalities
Read the text and choose the best answer.These stories of killer bees in the news in recent years have attracted a lot of attention as bees have made their way from South America to North America. Killer bees are reputed to be extremely aggressive in nature, although experts say that their aggression may have been somewhat inflated.The killer bee is a hybrid—or combination- of the very mild European strain of honeybee and the considerably more aggressive African bee, which was created when African strain was imported into Brazil in 1955. The African bees were brought into Brazil because their aggression was considered an advantage: they were far more productive than their European counterparts in that they spent a higher percentage of their time working and continued working longer in inclement weather than did the European bees. These killer bees have been known to attack humans and animals, and some fatalities have occurred. Experts point out, however, that the mixed breed known as the killer bee is actually not at all as aggressive as the pure African bee. They also point out that the attacks have a chemical cause. A killer bee stings only when it has been disturbed; it is not aggressive by nature. However, after a disturbed bee stings and flies away, it leaves its stinger embedded in the victim. In the vicera attached to the embedded stinger is the chemical isoamyl acetate, which has an odor that attracts other bees. As other bees approach the victim of the original sting, the victim tends to panic, thus disturbing other bees and causing them to sting. The new sting create more of the chemical isoamyl acetate, which attracts more bees and increases the panic level of the victim. Killer bees tend to travel in large cluster or swarms and thus respond in large numbers to the production of isoamyl acetate.The subject of the preceding paragraph was most likely
the creation of the killer bee
ways of producing honey
the chemical nature of killer bee attacks
stories in the media about killer bees
Read the text and choose the best answer.These stories of killer bees in the news in recent years have attracted a lot of attention as bees have made their way from South America to North America. Killer bees are reputed to be extremely aggressive in nature, although experts say that their aggression may have been somewhat inflated.The killer bee is a hybrid—or combination- of the very mild European strain of honeybee and the considerably more aggressive African bee, which was created when African strain was imported into Brazil in 1955. The African bees were brought into Brazil because their aggression was considered an advantage: they were far more productive than their European counterparts in that they spent a higher percentage of their time working and continued working longer in inclement weather than did the European bees. These killer bees have been known to attack humans and animals, and some fatalities have occurred. Experts point out, however, that the mixed breed known as the killer bee is actually not at all as aggressive as the pure African bee. They also point out that the attacks have a chemical cause. A killer bee stings only when it has been disturbed; it is not aggressive by nature. However, after a disturbed bee stings and flies away, it leaves its stinger embedded in the victim. In the vicera attached to the embedded stinger is the chemical isoamyl acetate, which has an odor that attracts other bees. As other bees approach the victim of the original sting, the victim tends to panic, thus disturbing other bees and causing them to sting. The new sting create more of the chemical isoamyl acetate, which attracts more bees and increases the panic level of the victim. Killer bees tend to travel in large cluster or swarms and thus respond in large numbers to the production of isoamyl acetate.The word “inflated” in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by
burst
blown
aired
exaggerated
Read the text and choose the best answer.These stories of killer bees in the news in recent years have attracted a lot of attention as bees have made their way from South America to North America. Killer bees are reputed to be extremely aggressive in nature, although experts say that their aggression may have been somewhat inflated.The killer bee is a hybrid—or combination- of the very mild European strain of honeybee and the considerably more aggressive African bee, which was created when African strain was imported into Brazil in 1955. The African bees were brought into Brazil because their aggression was considered an advantage: they were far more productive than their European counterparts in that they spent a higher percentage of their time working and continued working longer in inclement weather than did the European bees. These killer bees have been known to attack humans and animals, and some fatalities have occurred. Experts point out, however, that the mixed breed known as the killer bee is actually not at all as aggressive as the pure African bee. They also point out that the attacks have a chemical cause. A killer bee stings only when it has been disturbed; it is not aggressive by nature. However, after a disturbed bee stings and flies away, it leaves its stinger embedded in the victim. In the vicera attached to the embedded stinger is the chemical isoamyl acetate, which has an odor that attracts other bees. As other bees approach the victim of the original sting, the victim tends to panic, thus disturbing other bees and causing them to sting. The new sting create more of the chemical isoamyl acetate, which attracts more bees and increases the panic level of the victim. Killer bees tend to travel in large cluster or swarms and thus respond in large numbers to the production of isoamyl acetate.Why were African bees considered beneficial?
They hid from inclement weather.
They spent their time traveling.
They were very aggressive.
They produced an unusual type of honey.
Read the text and choose the best answer.This new science, which De Vany calls evolutionary fitness, is part of growing efforts to understand how the human body has been shaped by evolution, and to use this knowledge to improve our health and fitness. Proponents believe the key lies in the lifestyle of our hunter-gatherer ancestors because, they say, the vast majority of the human genome is still adapted to an ancient rhythm of life which swung between intense periods of activity and long stretches of inertia.Across the Palaeolithic age - which covers the period between 2.6 million and 10,000years ago - prey animals were large, fast on their feet, or both. For men, this would have meant lots of walking or jogging to find herds, dramatic sprints, jumps and turns, perhaps violent struggles, and long walks home carrying the kill. Women may not have had such intense exercise, but they would have spent many hours walking to sources of water or food, digging up tubers, and carrying children. If modern hunter-gatherers are anything to go by, men may have hunted for up to four days a week and travelled 15 kilometres or more on each trip. Women may have gathered food every two or three days. There would also have been plenty of other regular physical activities for both sexes such as skinning animals and tool making, and probably dancing.Our Palaeolithic ancestors were constantly active.
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
FALSE
Read the text and choose the best answer.This new science, which De Vany calls evolutionary fitness, is part of growing efforts to understand how the human body has been shaped by evolution, and to use this knowledge to improve our health and fitness. Proponents believe the key lies in the lifestyle of our hunter-gatherer ancestors because, they say, the vast majority of the human genome is still adapted to an ancient rhythm of life which swung between intense periods of activity and long stretches of inertia.Across the Palaeolithic age - which covers the period between 2.6 million and 10,000years ago - prey animals were large, fast on their feet, or both. For men, this would have meant lots of walking or jogging to find herds, dramatic sprints, jumps and turns, perhaps violent struggles, and long walks home carrying the kill. Women may not have had such intense exercise, but they would have spent many hours walking to sources of water or food, digging up tubers, and carrying children. If modern hunter-gatherers are anything to go by, men may have hunted for up to four days a week and travelled 15 kilometres or more on each trip. Women may have gathered food every two or three days. There would also have been plenty of other regular physical activities for both sexes such as skinning animals and tool making, and probably dancing.Which one of the following does the writer highlight when discussing the lifestyle of our Palaeolithic ancestors
the fact that life was equally energetic for both sexes
the long distances between neighbours’ homes
their size compared to that of modern man
the predictable frequency of physical activity
Read the text and choose the best answer.This new science, which De Vany calls evolutionary fitness, is part of growing efforts to understand how the human body has been shaped by evolution, and to use this knowledge to improve our health and fitness. Proponents believe the key lies in the lifestyle of our hunter-gatherer ancestors because, they say, the vast majority of the human genome is still adapted to an ancient rhythm of life which swung between intense periods of activity and long stretches of inertia.Across the Palaeolithic age - which covers the period between 2.6 million and10,000years ago - prey animals were large, fast on their feet, or both. For men, this would have meant lots of walking or jogging to find herds, dramatic sprints, jumps and turns, perhaps violent struggles, and long walks home carrying the kill. Women may not have had such intense exercise, but they would have spent many hours walking to sources of water or food, digging up tubers, and carrying children. If modern hunter-gatherers are anything to go by, men may have hunted for up to four days a week and travelled 15 kilometres or more on each trip. Women may have gathered food every two or three days. There would also have been plenty of other regular physical activities for both sexes such as skinning animals and tool making, and probably dancing.Which one of the following does the writer highlight when discussing the lifestyle of our Palaeolithic ancestors
the sudden movements required during their daily activities
their size compared to that of modern man
the fact that life was equally energetic for both sexes
the aggressive nature of their negotiations with others
Read the text and choose the best answer.This new science, which De Vany calls evolutionary fitness, is part of growing efforts to understand how the human body has been shaped by evolution, and to use this knowledge to improve our health and fitness. Proponents believe the key lies in the lifestyle of our hunter-gatherer ancestors because, they say, the vast majority of the human genome is still adapted to an ancient rhythm of life which swung between intense periods of activity and long stretches of inertia.Across the Palaeolithic age - which covers the period between 2.6 million and10,000years ago - prey animals were large, fast on their feet, or both. For men, this would have meant lots of walking or jogging to find herds, dramatic sprints, jumps and turns, perhaps violent struggles, and long walks home carrying the kill. Women may not have had such intense exercise, but they would have spent many hours walking to sources of water or food, digging up tubers, and carrying children. If modern hunter-gatherers are anything to go by, men may have hunted for up to four days a week and travelled 15 kilometres or more on each trip. Women may have gathered food every two or three days. There would also have been plenty of other regular physical activities for both sexes such as skinning animals and tool making, and probably dancing.Which one of the following does the writer highlight when discussing the lifestyle of our Palaeolithic ancestors?
their size compared to that of modem man
the difficulties involved in finding food
the fact that life was equally energetic for both sexes
the aggressive nature of their negotiations with others
Read the text and choose the best answer.Though it is properly classified as a learning disability, dyslexia is commonly mistaken for a behavioral disorder. Dyslexic children often exhibit behavior that seems abnormal but is caused by frustration at their own inability to perform at the same level as their peers. Some studies show that attention deficit disorder co-occurs with dyslexia in up to 50 percent of cases. In general, behavioral problems decline as dyslexic students are diagnosed and begin to receive treatment.Other learning disabilities are neurologically linked to dyslexia, including dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and dyspraxia. People who suffer from dyscalculia can usually perform difficult mathematical tasks, but have trouble with formulas or basic addition and subtraction. Dysgraphia prevents people from writing in an organized manner. Dyspraxia impedes the performance of routine tasks that involve balance and fine motor skills.Dyslexia in children is often accompanied by behavioral problems.
check_box TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.Though it is properly classified as a learning disability, dyslexia is commonly mistaken for a behavioral disorder. Dyslexic children often exhibit behavior that seems abnormal but is caused by frustration at their own inability to perform at the same level as their peers. Some studies show that attention deficit disorder co-occurs with dyslexia in up to 50 percent of cases. In general, behavioral problems decline as dyslexic students are diagnosed and begin to receive treatment.Other learning disabilities are neurologically linked to dyslexia, including dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and dyspraxia. People who suffer from dyscalculia can usually perform difficult mathematical tasks, but have trouble with formulas or basic addition and subtraction. Dysgraphia prevents people from writing in an organized manner. Dyspraxia impedes the performance of routine tasks that involve balance and fine motor skills.People with dysgraphia have difficulty with math.
NOT GIVEN
FALSE
TRUE
Read the text and choose the best answer.Though most children are not diagnosed with dyslexia until they enter the school system, there are some early signs of the disability. Toddlers who talk much later than average, have difficulty learning new words, or do not understand the concept of rhyming may develop other dyslexic symptoms. As children begin school, teachers are trained to look for warning signs, such as an inability to recognize2 letters or spaces between words on a page or difficulty following instructions given with more than one command at a time. Properly screening children for dyslexia is important since other factors can limit reading abilities, including vision or hearing impairment, anxiety, or other neurological problems.Which of the following is the sign of dyslexia mentioned in the passage?
check_box trouble with new vocabulary
leaving big spaces between words
inability to give commands
difficulty turning the pages of a book
Read the text and choose the best answer.Though most children are not diagnosed with dyslexia until they enter the school system, there are some early signs of the disability. Toddlers who talk much later than average, have difficulty learning new words, or do not understand the concept of rhyming may develop other dyslexic symptoms. As children begin school, teachers are trained to look for warning signs, such as an inability to recognize2 letters or spaces between words on a page or difficulty following instructions given with more than one command at a time. Properly screening children for dyslexia is important since other factors can limit reading abilities, including vision or hearing impairment, anxiety, or other neurological problems.Which of the following is the sign of dyslexia mentioned in the passage?
check_box learning to talk at a later than normal age
difficulty turning the pages of a book
inability to give commands
leaving big spaces between words
Read the text and choose the best answer.To appreciate this unusual outback I monument and to meet the people whose livelihoods depend on it, I spent part of an Australian autumn travelling the wire. It’s known by different names in different states: the Dog Fence in South Australia, the Border Fence in New South Wales and the Barrier Fence in Queensland. I would call it simply the Fence.For most of its prodigious length, this epic fence winds like a river across a landscape that, unless a big rain has fallen, scarcely has rivers. The eccentric route, prescribed mostly by property lines, provides a sampler of outback topography: the Fence goes over; sand dunes, past salt lakes, up and down rock-strewn hills, through dense scrub and across barren plains.How does the author feel about the fence?
shocked
delighted
annoyed
impressed
Read the text and choose the best answer.To make political decisions about the extent and type of forestry in a region it is important to understand the consequences of those decisions. One tool for assessing the impact of forestry on the ecosystem is population viability analysis (PVA). This is a tool for predicting the probability that a species will become extinct in a particular region over a specific period. It has been successfully used in the United States to provide input into resource exploitation decisions and assist wildlife managers and there is now enormous potential for using population viability to assist wildlife management in Australia’s forests.A species becomes extinct when the last individual dies. This observation is a useful starting point for any discussion of extinction as it highlights the role of luck and chance in the extinction process. To make a prediction about extinction we need to understand the processes that can contribute to it and these fall into four broad categories which are discussed below.A link exist between the consequences of decisions and the decision making process itself.
check_box TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.To make political decisions about the extent and type of forestry in a region it is important to understand the consequences of those decisions. One tool for assessing the impact of forestry on the ecosystem is population viability analysis (PVA). This is a tool for predicting the probability that a species will become extinct in a particular region over a specific period. It has been successfully used in the United States to provide input into resource exploitation decisions and assist wildlife managers and there is now enormous potential for using population viability to assist wildlife management in Australia’s forests.A species becomes extinct when the last individual dies. This observation is a useful starting point for any discussion of extinction as it highlights the role of luck and chance in the extinction process. To make a prediction about extinction we need to understand the processes that can contribute to it and these fall into four broad categories which are discussed below.PVA has been used in Australia for many years.
NOT GIVEN
FALSE
TRUE
Read the text and choose the best answer.To make political decisions about the extent and type of forestry in a region it is important to understand the consequences of those decisions. One tool for assessing the impact of forestry on the ecosystem is population viability analysis (PVA). This is a tool for predicting the probability that a species will become extinct in a particular region over a specific period. It has been successfully used in the United States to provide input into resource exploitation decisions and assist wildlife managers and there is now enormous potential for using population viability to assist wildlife management in Australia’s forests.A species becomes extinct when the last individual dies. This observation is a useful starting point for any discussion of extinction as it highlights the role of luck and chance in the extinction process. To make a prediction about extinction we need to understand the processes that can contribute to it and these fall into four broad categories which are discussed below.Scientists are interested in the effect of forestry on native animals.
check_box TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.To make political decisions about the extent and type of forestry in a region it is important to understand the consequences of those decisions. One tool for assessing the impact of forestry on the ecosystem is population viability analysis (PVA). This is a tool for predicting the probability that a species will become extinct in a particular region over a specific period. It has been successfully used in the United States to provide input into resource exploitation decisions and assist wildlife managers and there is now enormous potential for using population viability to assist wildlife management in Australia’s forests.A species becomes extinct when the last individual dies. This observation is a useful starting point for any discussion of extinction as it highlights the role of luck and chance in the extinction process. To make a prediction about extinction we need to understand the processes that can contribute to it and these fall into four broad categories which are discussed belowA species is said to be extinct when only one individual exists.
check_box FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and choose the best answer.To make political decisions about the extent and type of forestry in a region it is important to understand the consequences of those decisions. One tool for assessing the impact of forestry on the ecosystem is population viability analysis (PVA). This is a tool for predicting the probability that a species will become extinct in a particular region over a specific period. It has been successfully used in the United States to provide input into resource exploitation decisions and assist wildlife managers and there is now enormous potential for using population viability to assist wildlife management in Australia’s forests.A species becomes extinct when the last individual dies. This observation is a useful starting point for any discussion of extinction as it highlights the role of luck and chance in the extinction process. To make a prediction about extinction we need to understand the processes that can contribute to it and these fall into four broad categories which are discussed belowExtinction is a naturally occurring phenomenon.
check_box NOT GIVEN
FALSE
TRUE
Read the text and choose the best answer.Vikings from Denmark, meanwhile, ravaged large swaths of England and France. In 866, a Viking “Great Army” landed in England, occupying much of the country’s north and east. They forced the English king to acknowledge their control of much of England under the so-called Danelaw. To the west, they conquered coastal portions of Ireland, and in 841 founded Dublin, today a major Irish city, but originally a Viking fort. The Vikings remained a major power in Ireland until the early eleventh century.To the south, the Vikings conquered France, moving swiftly up rivers in long boats, powered by oar and sail. From 845 to 886, they surged up the Seine to attack Paris three times. To stop the raids, French King Charles III the Simple in 911 offered the Viking chief Rollo territories in northwest France, called Normandy, after the Normans or “Northmen.” There they set up a powerful kingdom and, in 1066, under William, Duke of Normandy, defeated King Harold at the battle of Hastings in England.When did Viking warriors defeat an English king?
check_box 1066
845
886
866
Read the text and choose the best answer.Vikings from Denmark, meanwhile, ravaged large swaths of England and France. In 866, a Viking “Great Army” landed in England, occupying much of the country’s north and east. They forced the English king to acknowledge their control of much of England under the so-called Danelaw. To the west, they conquered coastal portions of Ireland, and in 841 founded Dublin, today a major Irish city, but originally a Viking fort. The Vikings remained a major power in Ireland until the early eleventh century.To the south, the Vikings conquered France, moving swiftly up rivers in long boats, powered by oar and sail. From 845 to 886, they surged up the Seine to attack Paris three times. To stop the raids, French King Charles III the Simple in 911 offered the Viking chief Rollo territories in northwest France, called Normandy, after the Normans or “Northmen.” There they set up a powerful kingdom and, in 1066, under William, Duke of Normandy, defeated King Harold at the battle of Hastings in England.When was a Viking chief granted lands by a king of France?
845
911
866
886
Read the text and choose the best answer.While events such as the deforestation of the Amazon jungle or the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl continue to receive high media exposure, as do acts of environmental sabotage, it must be remembered that not all pollution is on this grand scale. A large proportion of the world’s pollution has its source much closer to home. The recent spillage of crude oil from an oil tanker accidentally discharging its cargo straight into Sydney Harbour not only caused serious damage to the harbour foreshores but also created severely toxic fumes which hung over the suburbs for days and left the angry residents wondering how such a disaster could have been allowed to happen.The Sydney Harbour oil spill was the result of a…..
ship refuelling in the harbour.
tanker pumping oil into the sea.
collision between two oil tankers
deliberate act of sabotage.
Read the text and choose the best answer.While many of caffeine’s undesirable effects, such as elevated heart rate and blood pressure, are brief, some short-term benefits, including pain relief, increased alertness, and increased physical endurance, have also been attributed to caffeine. As a component of numerous over-the-counter diet pills and pain relievers, caffeine increases their effectiveness and helps the body absorb them more quickly. By constricting blood vessels in the brain, it can alleviate headaches—even migraines—and can help counter the drowsiness caused by antihistamines.Caffeine does not alter the need for sleep, but it does offer a temporary solution to fatigue for people who need to stay alert. Research has shown that sleep- deprived individuals who consumed caffeine had improved memory and reasoning abilities, at least in the short term. Studies of runners and cyclists have shown that caffeine can improve their stamina—hence its addition to energy- boosting sports drinks.Caffeine can help some medications work faster.
check_box TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
Read the text and choose the best answer.While many of caffeine’s undesirable effects, such as elevated heart rate and blood pressure, are brief, some short-term benefits, including pain relief, increased alertness, and increased physical endurance, have also been attributed to caffeine. As a component of numerous over-the-counter diet pills and pain relievers, caffeine increases their effectiveness and helps the body absorb them more quickly. By constricting blood vessels in the brain, it can alleviate headaches—even migraines—and can help counter the drowsiness caused by antihistamines.Caffeine does not alter the need for sleep, but it does offer a temporary solution to fatigue for people who need to stay alert. Research has shown that sleep- deprived individuals who consumed caffeine had improved memory and reasoning abilities, at least in the short term. Studies of runners and cyclists have shown that caffeine can improve their stamina—hence its addition to energy- boosting sports drinks.Caffeine is used to treat……..
flu
liver cancer.
headaches.
high blood pressure.
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading..Despite the $500 million a year Australians spend trying to lose weight and the $830 million it costs the community in health care, obesity is at epidemic proportions here, as it is in all Western nations. Until recently, research and treatment for obesity had concentrated on behaviour modification, drugs to decrease appetite and surgery. How the drugs worked was often not understood and many caused severe side effects and even death in some patients. Surgery for obesity has also claimed many lives.What is the the most suitable heading for the paragraph?
Lifestyle change required despite new findings
New perspective on the horizon
A very uncommon complaint
Hidden dangers
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading.Although the metabolism myth has been completely disproved, science has far from discounted our genes as responsible for making us whatever weight we are, fat or thin. One of the world's leading obesity researchers, geneticist Professor Stephen O'Rahilly, goes so far as to say we are on the threshold of a complete change in the way we view not only morbid obesity, but also everyday overweight. Prof. O'Rahilly's groundbreaking work in Cambridge has proven that obesity can be caused by our genes. 'These people are not weak- willed, slothful or lazy,' says Prof. O'Rahilly, 'They have a medical condition due to a genetic defect and that causes them to be obese.'What is the the most suitable heading for the paragraph?
check_box New perspective on the horizon
Hidden dangers
A very uncommon complaint
Lifestyle change required despite new findings
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading.Essays, whether written as part of a secondary school programme or further education course, are designed to test your thinking, writing and study skills. Creative essays offer you the freedom to demonstrate your abilities to communicate effectively. Analytical essays, on the other hand, will require you to show that you have researched the topic and drawn on the work of others to come to your conclusion.
Gathering source material
Open-ended essays
The importance of focusing on the task
Types of essay and their purpose
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading.However interesting and well prepared your essay may be, if it does not address the question, you will not receive a good mark. It is therefore essential that you examine the question and understand what is required. A list of key words which may appear in an essay question is provided in Appendix 4. Be sure you know what is being asked for and then consider what information is relevant and what is not.
Gathering source material
Open-ended essays
The importance of focusing on the task
Types of essay and their purpose
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading.In Australia, the University of Sydney's Professor Ian Caterson says while major genetic defects may be rare, many people probably have minor genetic variations that combine to dictate weight and are responsible for things such as how much we eat, the amount of exercise we do and the amount of energy we need. When you add up all these little variations, the result is that some people are genetically predisposed to putting on weight. He says while the fast/slow metabolism debate may have been settled, that doesn't mean some other subtle change in the metabolism gene won't be found in overweight people. He is confident that science will, eventually, be able to 'cure' some forms of obesity but the only effective way for the vast majority of overweight and obese people to lose weight is a change of diet and an increase in exercise.What is the the most suitable heading for the paragraph?
Lifestyle change required despite new findings
Hidden dangers
New perspective on the horizon
A very uncommon complaint
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading.It is important to keep the essay relevant and to provide some examples, quotations, illustrations, diagrams or maps wherever appropriate. However, it is equally important to avoid the temptation to pad your essay with unwanted information: this wastes your time and undermines the relevant parts of the essay. In coursework and assessment essays not written under examination conditions, do not forget to acknowledge your sources in a bibliography.
Allocating your personal resources
Learning from the essay
Making the support material relevant
Open-ended essays
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading.It took only one night, spent in a sealed room at the Dunn Unit to disabuse one of their patients of the beliefs of a lifetime: her metabolism was fast, not slow. By sealing the room and measuring the exact amount of oxygen she used, researchers were able to show her that her metabolism was not the culprit. It wasn't the answer she expected and probably not the one she wanted but she took the news philosophically.What is the the most suitable heading for the paragraph?
A very uncommon complaint
Hidden dangers
Lifestyle change required despite new findings
Proof of the truth
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading.Obesity is a huge problem in many Western countries and one which now attracts considerable medical interest as researchers take up the challenge to find a 'cure' for the common condition of being seriously overweight. However, rather than take responsibility for their weight, obese people have often sought solace in the excuse that they have a slow metabolism, a genetic hiccup which sentences more than half the Australian population (63% of men and 47% of women) to a life of battling with their weight. The argument goes like this: it doesn't matter how little they eat, they gain weight because their bodies break down food and turn it into energy more slowly than those with a so-called normal metabolic rate.What is the the most suitable heading for the paragraph?
A very uncommon complaint
Lifestyle change required despite new findings
Hidden dangers
Shifting the blame
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading.Once you have collected your source material you should then sketch out a plan. Begin by writing three or four sentences, which provide a summary of the essay. You can amend or add to the plan as you proceed and it provides a useful scaffold for your essay. It also ensures that you cover all the main themes and that your essay focuses on the question. Ideally you should plan to examine the question from all sides, presenting various views before reaching a conclusion based on the evidence.
Gathering source material
Open-ended essays
The importance of focusing on the task
Writing a framework
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading.The introduction to the essay should explain to the reader how you are going to tackle the question and provide an outline of what will follow. Then move on to the main body of the essay. Refer to your notes and develop two or three logical arguments. Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence, which clearly states the subject to be discussed, and then use the remainder of the paragraph to fill out this opening sentence. A good essay should finish rather than simply stop. That is to say, the conclusion should provide a statement of your final position, summing up the arguments that your opinions are based upon.
Learning from the essay
Making the support material relevant
Open-ended essays
Writing the essay
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading.'This is nonsense,' says Dr Susan Jebb from the Dunn Nutrition Unit at Cambridge in England. Despite the persistence of this metabolism myth, science has known for several years that the exact opposite is in fact true. Fat people have faster metabolisms than thin people. 'What is very clear,' says Dr Jebb, 'is that overweight people actually burn off more energy. They have more cells, bigger hearts, bigger lungs and they all need more energy just to keep going.'What is the the most suitable heading for the paragraph?
check_box Expert explains energy requirements of obese people
Lifestyle change required despite new findings
A very uncommon complaint
Proof of the truth
Read the text and choose the most suitable heading.Use a variety of relevant background texts, refer to your lecture notes and heed any advice given by your lecturer. When you collect material, always ask yourself what questions need to be answered and then take good notes in your own words. Begin notes on each source on a new page and do not forget to record details of the author, title of the book and date of publication. Remember that copying words from another writer's work without acknowledging the source constitutes the serious crime of plagiarism.
Gathering source material
Open-ended essays
The importance of focusing on the task
Types of essay and their purpose
Read the text and choose the the most suitable heading.It has long been known that a part of the brain called the hypothalamus is responsible for regulating hunger, among other things. But it wasn't until 1994 that Professor Jeffery Friedman from Rockerfeller University in the US sent science in a new direction by studying an obese mouse. Prof. Friedman found that unlike its thin brothers, the fat mouse did not produce a hitherto unknown hormone called leptin. Manufactured by the fat cells, leptin acts as a messenger, sending signals to the hypothalamus to turn off the appetite. Previously, the fat cells were thought to be responsible simply for storing fat. Prof. Friedman gave the fat mouse leptin and it lost 30% of its body weight in two weeks.What is the the most suitable heading for the paragraph?
check_box Rodent research leads the way
Nature or nurture
A very uncommon complaint
Lifestyle change required despite new findings
Read the text and choose the the most suitable heading.On the other side of the Atlantic, Prof. O'Rahilly read about this research with great excitement. For many months two blood samples had lain in the bottom of his freezer, taken from two extremely obese young cousins. He hired a doctor to develop a test for leptin in human blood, which eventually resulted in the discovery that neither of the children's blood contained the hormone. When one cousin was given leptin, she lost a stone in weight and Prof. O'Rahilly made medical history. Here was the first proof that a genetic defect could cause obesity in humans. But leptin deficiency turned out to be an extremely rare condition and there is a lot more research to be done before the 'magic' cure for obesity is ever found.What is the the most suitable heading for the paragraph?
New perspective on the horizon
A very uncommon complaint
Hidden dangers
Lifestyle change required despite new findings
Read the text and complete the sentence below.COURSE GUIDELINES AssignmentsCoursework assignments will involve the production of an artefact (something shaped by human beings rather than by nature) OR an investigation of some kind followed by a report. This is to demonstrate the relevance of your study to society today. If you opt to produce an artefact, (e.g. a working model or piece of machinery) you will also be expected to provide some written explanation of how and why you produced it. There are………types of assignment to choose from.
1
3
4
2
Read the text and complete the sentence below.COURSE GUIDELINES AssignmentsCoursework assignments will involve the production of an artefact (something shaped by human beings rather than by nature) OR an investigation of some kind followed by a report. This is to demonstrate the relevance of your study to society today. If you opt to produce an artefact, (e.g. a working model or piece of machinery) you will also be expected to provide some written explanation of how and why you produced it.You need to follow these steps:•Find out precisely what is expected of you. Talk to your tutor and refer to the syllabus document.•Be aware of what skills and abilities you must demonstrate.•Always plan a project thoroughly before you begin it but be realistic about how much time you can seriously devote to it.A working model must be accompanied by………of some sort.
study
written explanation
investigation
production
Read the text and complete the sentence below.COURSE GUIDELINES AssignmentsCoursework assignments will involve the production of an artefact (something shaped by human beings rather than by nature) OR an investigation of some kind followed by a report. This is to demonstrate the relevance of your study to society today. If you opt to produce an artefact, (e.g. a working model or piece of machinery) you will also be expected to provide some written explanation of how and why you produced it.You need to follow these steps:•Find out precisely what is expected of you. Talk to your tutor and refer to the syllabus document.•Be aware of what skills and abilities you must demonstrate.•Always plan a project thoroughly before you begin it but be realistic about how much time you can seriously devote to it.Choosing a topicRemember that this course is essentially concerned with the achievement of desired ends. So first identify a real-life problem, then consider it in detail, specify a precise need and then define your design task. As you plan, wherever possible, consider using new materials, techniques and technology such as computer-aided design (CAD).There is nothing wrong with talking to knowledgeable people about your project; in fact, this shows initiative. However, the project is yours so you must do the work yourself.You will need a fairly flexible plan because sometimes resources, apparatus and consumables may not be available when you need them. It is a good idea to work backwards when planning so you know you will meet your final deadline. Finally, when you plan the various stages of your project give due regard to safety and costs.As well as being cost effective, the method chosen must also be…………………
safe
safety
cost
technology
Read the text and complete the sentence below.COURSE GUIDELINES AssignmentsCoursework assignments will involve the production of an artefact (something shaped by human beings rather than by nature) OR an investigation of some kind followed by a report. This is to demonstrate the relevance of your study to society today. If you opt to produce an artefact, (e.g. a working model or piece of machinery) you will also be expected to provide some written explanation of how and why you produced it.You need to follow these steps:•Find out precisely what is expected of you. Talk to your tutor and refer to the syllabus document.•Be aware of what skills and abilities you must demonstrate.•Always plan a project thoroughly before you begin it but be realistic about how much time you can seriously devote to it.Choosing a topicRemember that this course is essentially concerned with the achievement of desired ends. So first identify a real-life problem, then consider it in detail, specify a precise need and then define your design task. As you plan, wherever possible, consider using new materials, techniques and technology such as computer-aided design (CAD).There is nothing wrong with talking to knowledgeable people about your project; in fact, this shows initiative. However, the project is yours so you must do the work yourself.You will need a fairly flexible plan because sometimes resources, apparatus and consumables may not be available when you need them. It is a good idea to work backwards when planning so you know you will meet your final deadline. Finally, when you plan the various stages of your project give due regard to safety and costs.To avoid handing the assignment in late, it is suggested that students…………
ask for a help from the tutor
write the outline
take advantage of IT
work plan backwards
Read the text and complete the sentence below.COURSE GUIDELINES AssignmentsCoursework assignments will involve the production of an artefact (something shaped by human beings rather than by nature) OR an investigation of some kind followed by a report. This is to demonstrate the relevance of your study to society today. If you opt to produce an artefact, (e.g. a working model or piece of machinery) you will also be expected to provide some written explanation of how and why you produced it.You need to follow these steps:•Find out precisely what is expected of you. Talk to your tutor and refer to the syllabus document.•Be aware of what skills and abilities you must demonstrate.•Always plan a project thoroughly before you begin it but be realistic about how much time you can seriously devote to it.Choosing a topicRemember that this course is essentially concerned with the achievement of desired ends. So first identify a real-life problem, then consider it in detail, specify a precise need and then define your design task. As you plan, wherever possible, consider using new materials, techniques and technology such as computer-aided design (CAD).There is nothing wrong with talking to knowledgeable people about your project; in fact, this shows initiative. However, the project is yours so you must do the work yourself.You will need a fairly flexible plan because sometimes resources, apparatus and consumables may not be available when you need them. It is a good idea to work backwards when planning so you know you will meet your final deadline. Finally, when you plan the various stages of your project give due regard to safety and costs.Topics must be based on……………
a real-life problem
safety and costs
computer-aided design
technology
Read the text and complete the sentence below.COURSE GUIDELINES AssignmentsCoursework assignments will involve the production of an artefact (something shaped by human beings rather than by nature) OR an investigation of some kind followed by a report. This is to demonstrate the relevance of your study to society today. If you opt to produce an artefact, (e.g. a working model or piece of machinery) you will also be expected to provide some written explanation of how and why you produced it.You need to follow these steps:•Find out precisely what is expected of you. Talk to your tutor and refer to the syllabus document.•Be aware of what skills and abilities you must demonstrate.•Always plan a project thoroughly before you begin it but be realistic about how much time you can seriously devote to it.In order to understand the purpose of the assignment, students are advised to read…………….
study
written explanation
the syllabus document
production
Read the text and decide that the statement is TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVENWhen you think about it, it's amazing that anyone gets away with a carefree holiday. It seems there is limitless potential for things to go wrong, from flight delays and lost luggage to poor accommodation.A recent questionnaire showed that a third of people who replied had a complaint about their holiday last year. And when these unhappy holidaymakers discussed the problem with their tour company nearly half said it involved time and effort on their part to resolve things.When asked exactly what the reasons were for their dissatisfaction top of the list was flight delays and 20 per cent of holiday-makers to Europe said they had to wait up to an hour.More worrying is the fact that almost a third of holiday-makers who had complained said it was about the apartment or hotel room they had been allocated. There is an enormous variety of holiday accommodation and we recommend that consumers look for places that have been inspected by the Tourist Boards; this way they can have the confidence that they will get the type of accommodation they are looking for. It seems that tour companies now offer more honest accurate brochures though. Eight-five per cent of holiday-makers who responded to our questionnaire said the description offered by the company matched the place they visited and the facilities provided. This is good news for the industry and for holiday-makers. A holiday is a major purchase - yet it's one we can't try before we pay. All we have to go on is the brochure and it's a credit to tour operators that they now contain more detail.OUR ADVICE DO be realistic. No one should be palmed off with a poor standard of service, food or accommodation even if you paid a rock- bottom price for a last- minute break. However, be reasonable - you won't get a room with the best view in town if you've paid a budget price. DO complain to the right person. Moaning to the waiter about a week's worth of appalling food, then writing an indignant letter when you get back home won't have the same impact as airing your grievances at the time. DO get evidence for a serious problem such as having a building site instead of the promised swimming pool below your window. Take a photo to back up your case. DON'T write and complain for the sake of it. Letters can be powerful as long as they're about something you have a good reason to complain about. DON'T lose your temper. Easier said than done, but you're more likely to get results if you state your case firmly, explain why you think there's a problem then suggest a reasonable solution.A low-cost holiday should still offer some high-quality services.
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and decide that the statement is TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVENWhen you think about it, it's amazing that anyone gets away with a carefree holiday. It seems there is limitless potential for things to go wrong, from flight delays and lost luggage to poor accommodation.A recent questionnaire showed that a third of people who replied had a complaint about their holiday last year. And when these unhappy holidaymakers discussed the problem with their tour company nearly half said it involved time and effort on their part to resolve things.When asked exactly what the reasons were for their dissatisfaction top of the list was flight delays and 20 per cent of holiday-makers to Europe said they had to wait up to an hour.More worrying is the fact that almost a third of holiday-makers who had complained said it was about the apartment or hotel room they had been allocated. There is an enormous variety of holiday accommodation and we recommend that consumers look for places that have been inspected by the Tourist Boards; this way they can have the confidence that they will get the type of accommodation they are looking for. It seems that tour companies now offer more honest accurate brochures though. Eight-five per cent of holiday-makers who responded to our questionnaire said the description offered by the company matched the place they visited and the facilities provided. This is good news for the industry and for holiday-makers. A holiday is a major purchase - yet it's one we can't try before we pay. All we have to go on is the brochure and it's a credit to tour operators that they now contain more detail.OUR ADVICE DO be realistic. No one should be palmed off with a poor standard of service, food or accommodation even if you paid a rock- bottom price for a last- minute break. However, be reasonable - you won't get a room with the best view in town if you've paid a budget price. DO complain to the right person. Moaning to the waiter about a week's worth of appalling food, then writing an indignant letter when you get back home won't have the same impact as airing your grievances at the time. DO get evidence for a serious problem such as having a building site instead of the promised swimming pool below your window. Take a photo to back up your case. DON'T write and complain for the sake of it. Letters can be powerful as long as they're about something you have a good reason to complain about. DON'T lose your temper. Easier said than done, but you're more likely to get results if you state your case firmly, explain why you think there's a problem then suggest a reasonable solution.Hotel staff can advise you on who you should complain to.
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and decide that the statement is TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVENWhen you think about it, it's amazing that anyone gets away with a carefree holiday. It seems there is limitless potential for things to go wrong, from flight delays and lost luggage to poor accommodation.A recent questionnaire showed that a third of people who replied had a complaint about their holiday last year. And when these unhappy holidaymakers discussed the problem with their tour company nearly half said it involved time and effort on their part to resolve things.When asked exactly what the reasons were for their dissatisfaction top of the list was flight delays and 20 per cent of holiday-makers to Europe said they had to wait up to an hour.More worrying is the fact that almost a third of holiday-makers who had complained said it was about the apartment or hotel room they had been allocated. There is an enormous variety of holiday accommodation and we recommend that consumers look for places that have been inspected by the Tourist Boards; this way they can have the confidence that they will get the type of accommodation they are looking for. It seems that tour companies now offer more honest accurate brochures though. Eight-five per cent of holiday-makers who responded to our questionnaire said the description offered by the company matched the place they visited and the facilities provided. This is good news for the industry and for holiday-makers. A holiday is a major purchase - yet it's one we can't try before we pay. All we have to go on is the brochure and it's a credit to tour operators that they now contain more detail.OUR ADVICE DO be realistic. No one should be palmed off with a poor standard of service, food or accommodation even if you paid a rock- bottom price for a last- minute break. However, be reasonable - you won't get a room with the best view in town if you've paid a budget price. DO complain to the right person. Moaning to the waiter about a week's worth of appalling food, then writing an indignant letter when you get back home won't have the same impact as airing your grievances at the time. DO get evidence for a serious problem such as having a building site instead of the promised swimming pool below your window. Take a photo to back up your case. DON'T write and complain for the sake of it. Letters can be powerful as long as they're about something you have a good reason to complain about. DON'T lose your temper. Easier said than done, but you're more likely to get results if you state your case firmly, explain why you think there's a problem then suggest a reasonable solution.If you are not good at writing letters, find someone to help you.
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and decide that the statement is TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVENWhen you think about it, it's amazing that anyone gets away with a carefree holiday. It seems there is limitless potential for things to go wrong, from flight delays and lost luggage to poor accommodation.A recent questionnaire showed that a third of people who replied had a complaint about their holiday last year. And when these unhappy holidaymakers discussed the problem with their tour company nearly half said it involved time and effort on their part to resolve things.When asked exactly what the reasons were for their dissatisfaction top of the list was flight delays and 20 per cent of holiday-makers to Europe said they had to wait up to an hour.More worrying is the fact that almost a third of holiday-makers who had complained said it was about the apartment or hotel room they had been allocated. There is an enormous variety of holiday accommodation and we recommend that consumers look for places that have been inspected by the Tourist Boards; this way they can have the confidence that they will get the type of accommodation they are looking for. It seems that tour companies now offer more honest accurate brochures though. Eight-five per cent of holiday-makers who responded to our questionnaire said the description offered by the company matched the place they visited and the facilities provided. This is good news for the industry and for holiday-makers. A holiday is a major purchase - yet it's one we can't try before we pay. All we have to go on is the brochure and it's a credit to tour operators that they now contain more detail.OUR ADVICE DO be realistic. No one should be palmed off with a poor standard of service, food or accommodation even if you paid a rock- bottom price for a last- minute break. However, be reasonable - you won't get a room with the best view in town if you've paid a budget price. DO complain to the right person. Moaning to the waiter about a week's worth of appalling food, then writing an indignant letter when you get back home won't have the same impact as airing your grievances at the time. DO get evidence for a serious problem such as having a building site instead of the promised swimming pool below your window. Take a photo to back up your case. DON'T write and complain for the sake of it. Letters can be powerful as long as they're about something you have a good reason to complain about. DON'T lose your temper. Easier said than done, but you're more likely to get results if you state your case firmly, explain why you think there's a problem then suggest a reasonable solution.Overall, holiday accommodation poses few problems.
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and decide that the statement is TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVENWhen you think about it, it's amazing that anyone gets away with a carefree holiday. It seems there is limitless potential for things to go wrong, from flight delays and lost luggage to poor accommodation.A recent questionnaire showed that a third of people who replied had a complaint about their holiday last year. And when these unhappy holidaymakers discussed the problem with their tour company nearly half said it involved time and effort on their part to resolve things.When asked exactly what the reasons were for their dissatisfaction top of the list was flight delays and 20 per cent of holiday-makers to Europe said they had to wait up to an hour.More worrying is the fact that almost a third of holiday-makers who had complained said it was about the apartment or hotel room they had been allocated. There is an enormous variety of holiday accommodation and we recommend that consumers look for places that have been inspected by the Tourist Boards; this way they can have the confidence that they will get the type of accommodation they are looking for. It seems that tour companies now offer more honest accurate brochures though. Eight-five per cent of holiday-makers who responded to our questionnaire said the description offered by the company matched the place they visited and the facilities provided. This is good news for the industry and for holiday-makers. A holiday is a major purchase - yet it's one we can't try before we pay. All we have to go on is the brochure and it's a credit to tour operators that they now contain more detail.OUR ADVICE DO be realistic. No one should be palmed off with a poor standard of service, food or accommodation even if you paid a rock- bottom price for a last- minute break. However, be reasonable - you won't get a room with the best view in town if you've paid a budget price. DO complain to the right person. Moaning to the waiter about a week's worth of appalling food, then writing an indignant letter when you get back home won't have the same impact as airing your grievances at the time. DO get evidence for a serious problem such as having a building site instead of the promised swimming pool below your window. Take a photo to back up your case. DON'T write and complain for the sake of it. Letters can be powerful as long as they're about something you have a good reason to complain about. DON'T lose your temper. Easier said than done, but you're more likely to get results if you state your case firmly, explain why you think there's a problem then suggest a reasonable solution.Photographs may help to support an argument about a holiday problem.
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and decide that the statement is TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVENWhen you think about it, it's amazing that anyone gets away with a carefree holiday. It seems there is limitless potential for things to go wrong, from flight delays and lost luggage to poor accommodation.A recent questionnaire showed that a third of people who replied had a complaint about their holiday last year. And when these unhappy holidaymakers discussed the problem with their tour company nearly half said it involved time and effort on their part to resolve things.When asked exactly what the reasons were for their dissatisfaction top of the list was flight delays and 20 per cent of holiday-makers to Europe said they had to wait up to an hour.More worrying is the fact that almost a third of holiday-makers who had complained said it was about the apartment or hotel room they had been allocated. There is an enormous variety of holiday accommodation and we recommend that consumers look for places that have been inspected by the Tourist Boards; this way they can have the confidence that they will get the type of accommodation they are looking for. It seems that tour companies now offer more honest accurate brochures though. Eight-five per cent of holiday-makers who responded to our questionnaire said the description offered by the company matched the place they visited and the facilities provided. This is good news for the industry and for holiday-makers. A holiday is a major purchase - yet it's one we can't try before we pay. All we have to go on is the brochure and it's a credit to tour operators that they now contain more detail.OUR ADVICE DO be realistic. No one should be palmed off with a poor standard of service, food or accommodation even if you paid a rock- bottom price for a last- minute break. However, be reasonable - you won't get a room with the best view in town if you've paid a budget price. DO complain to the right person. Moaning to the waiter about a week's worth of appalling food, then writing an indignant letter when you get back home won't have the same impact as airing your grievances at the time. DO get evidence for a serious problem such as having a building site instead of the promised swimming pool below your window. Take a photo to back up your case. DON'T write and complain for the sake of it. Letters can be powerful as long as they're about something you have a good reason to complain about. DON'T lose your temper. Easier said than done, but you're more likely to get results if you state your case firmly, explain why you think there's a problem then suggest a reasonable solution.Solving problems can be hard work for the holiday-maker.
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and decide that the statement is TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVENWhen you think about it, it's amazing that anyone gets away with a carefree holiday. It seems there is limitless potential for things to go wrong, from flight delays and lost luggage to poor accommodation.A recent questionnaire showed that a third of people who replied had a complaint about their holiday last year. And when these unhappy holidaymakers discussed the problem with their tour company nearly half said it involved time and effort on their part to resolve things.When asked exactly what the reasons were for their dissatisfaction top of the list was flight delays and 20 per cent of holiday-makers to Europe said they had to wait up to an hour.More worrying is the fact that almost a third of holiday-makers who had complained said it was about the apartment or hotel room they had been allocated. There is an enormous variety of holiday accommodation and we recommend that consumers look for places that have been inspected by the Tourist Boards; this way they can have the confidence that they will get the type of accommodation they are looking for. It seems that tour companies now offer more honest accurate brochures though. Eight-five per cent of holiday-makers who responded to our questionnaire said the description offered by the company matched the place they visited and the facilities provided. This is good news for the industry and for holiday-makers. A holiday is a major purchase - yet it's one we can't try before we pay. All we have to go on is the brochure and it's a credit to tour operators that they now contain more detail.OUR ADVICE DO be realistic. No one should be palmed off with a poor standard of service, food or accommodation even if you paid a rock- bottom price for a last- minute break. However, be reasonable - you won't get a room with the best view in town if you've paid a budget price. DO complain to the right person. Moaning to the waiter about a week's worth of appalling food, then writing an indignant letter when you get back home won't have the same impact as airing your grievances at the time. DO get evidence for a serious problem such as having a building site instead of the promised swimming pool below your window. Take a photo to back up your case. DON'T write and complain for the sake of it. Letters can be powerful as long as they're about something you have a good reason to complain about. DON'T lose your temper. Easier said than done, but you're more likely to get results if you state your case firmly, explain why you think there's a problem then suggest a reasonable solution.The most common problem for holiday-makers is crowded airports.
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and decide that the statement is TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVENWhen you think about it, it's amazing that anyone gets away with a carefree holiday. It seems there is limitless potential for things to go wrong, from flight delays and lost luggage to poor accommodation.A recent questionnaire showed that a third of people who replied had a complaint about their holiday last year. And when these unhappy holidaymakers discussed the problem with their tour company nearly half said it involved time and effort on their part to resolve things.When asked exactly what the reasons were for their dissatisfaction top of the list was flight delays and 20 per cent of holiday-makers to Europe said they had to wait up to an hour.More worrying is the fact that almost a third of holiday-makers who had complained said it was about the apartment or hotel room they had been allocated. There is an enormous variety of holiday accommodation and we recommend that consumers look for places that have been inspected by the Tourist Boards; this way they can have the confidence that they will get the type of accommodation they are looking for. It seems that tour companies now offer more honest accurate brochures though. Eight-five per cent of holiday-makers who responded to our questionnaire said the description offered by the company matched the place they visited and the facilities provided. This is good news for the industry and for holiday-makers. A holiday is a major purchase - yet it's one we can't try before we pay. All we have to go on is the brochure and it's a credit to tour operators that they now contain more detail.OUR ADVICE DO be realistic. No one should be palmed off with a poor standard of service, food or accommodation even if you paid a rock- bottom price for a last- minute break. However, be reasonable - you won't get a room with the best view in town if you've paid a budget price. DO complain to the right person. Moaning to the waiter about a week's worth of appalling food, then writing an indignant letter when you get back home won't have the same impact as airing your grievances at the time. DO get evidence for a serious problem such as having a building site instead of the promised swimming pool below your window. Take a photo to back up your case. DON'T write and complain for the sake of it. Letters can be powerful as long as they're about something you have a good reason to complain about. DON'T lose your temper. Easier said than done, but you're more likely to get results if you state your case firmly, explain why you think there's a problem then suggest a reasonable solution.Tour companies provide a satisfactory level of information to holiday-makers.
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
Read the text and match the car-hire websites to the statement.Hiring a Car OnlineOnline car hire promises to be cheap, quick and convenient. But is it? Neil McDougall revs up his mouse Expeed.org.ukBook a flight with Expeed and when you continue on to the car-hire section, the software already knows where you are going and when. However, you seem to be restricted to cities with airports for your car hire, and additional taxes are presented in travel- agent speak. Cutprice.comIs currently offering an aggressive lowest rates guarantee, an extra discount for former Holtravel clients and a package of free gifts to sweeten the deal. It also commits to no insurance excess on any of their rentals anywhere.Hot.orgStraightforward to navigate, with plenty of information on rental requirements and rules of operation. There are photographs of the types of vehicles available, leaving no doubt what a 'premium' or 'compact' car is. It took me just seconds to start reserving a car but then the whole thing ground to a halt and refused all attempts to access the reservation system.Cheapandcheerful.net.ukAvoids unnecessary embellishments online but the booking procedure is as good as it gets. Enter how many miles you expect to drive and tick your insurance, driver and child-seat choices and they will all be included in the final price. You must contact the location directly if you need a car within 3 days. And to hire a car abroad, there's a dull email form to fill in and they'll get back to you.The site is suited to people with up-to-date hardware.
Cheapandcheerful.net.uk
Cutprice.com
Expeed.org.uk
Hot.org
Read the text and match the car-hire websites to the statement.Hiring a Car OnlineOnline car hire promises to be cheap, quick and convenient. But is it? Neil McDougall revs up his mouse Cash.com.ukOne to consider if you’re going to the States, although, after I'd worked through half the booking process, it returned an error message without telling me which element of the procedure needed adjusting. I got there in the end. There is an inspirational section with detailed directions for some of the great drives of America. Expeed.org.ukBook a flight with Expeed and when you continue on to the car-hire section, the software already knows where you are going and when. However, you seem to be restricted to cities with airports for your car hire, and additional taxes are presented in travel- agent speak. Cutprice.comIs currently offering an aggressive lowest rates guarantee, an extra discount for former Holtravel clients and a package of free gifts to sweeten the deal. It also commits to no insurance excess on any of their rentals anywhere.Hot.orgStraightforward to navigate, with plenty of information on rental requirements and rules of operation. There are photographs of the types of vehicles available, leaving no doubt what a 'premium' or 'compact' car is. It took me just seconds to start reserving a car but then the whole thing ground to a halt and refused all attempts to access the reservation system.Assistance is provided with some holiday routes.
Cash.com.uk
Cutprice.com
Expeed.org.uk
Hot.org
Read the text and match the car-hire websites to the statement.Hiring a Car OnlineOnline car hire promises to be cheap, quick and convenient. But is it? Neil McDougall revs up his mouse Cash.com.ukOne to consider if you’re going to the States, although, after I'd worked through half the booking process, it returned an error message without telling me which element of the procedure needed adjusting. I got there in the end. There is an inspirational section with detailed directions for some of the great drives of America. Expeed.org.ukBook a flight with Expeed and when you continue on to the car-hire section, the software already knows where you are going and when. However, you seem to be restricted to cities with airports for your car hire, and additional taxes are presented in travel- agent speak. Cutprice.comIs currently offering an aggressive lowest rates guarantee, an extra discount for former Holtravel clients and a package of free gifts to sweeten the deal. It also commits to no insurance excess on any of their rentals anywhere.Hot.orgStraightforward to navigate, with plenty of information on rental requirements and rules of operation. There are photographs of the types of vehicles available, leaving no doubt what a 'premium' or 'compact' car is. It took me just seconds to start reserving a car but then the whole thing ground to a halt and refused all attempts to access the reservation system.Attempts made by the writer to book a car were unsuccessful.
Cash.com.uk
Cutprice.com
Expeed.org.uk
Hot.org
Read the text and match the car-hire websites to the statement.Hiring a Car OnlineOnline car hire promises to be cheap, quick and convenient. But is it? Neil McDougall revs up his mouse Cash.com.ukOne to consider if you’re going to the States, although, after I'd worked through half the booking process, it returned an error message without telling me which element of the procedure needed adjusting. I got there in the end. There is an inspirational section with detailed directions for some of the great drives of America. Expeed.org.ukBook a flight with Expeed and when you continue on to the car-hire section, the software already knows where you are going and when. However, you seem to be restricted to cities with airports for your car hire, and additional taxes are presented in travel- agent speak. Cutprice.comIs currently offering an aggressive lowest rates guarantee, an extra discount for former Holtravel clients and a package of free gifts to sweeten the deal. It also commits to no insurance excess on any of their rentals anywhere.Hot.orgStraightforward to navigate, with plenty of information on rental requirements and rules of operation. There are photographs of the types of vehicles available, leaving no doubt what a 'premium' or 'compact' car is. It took me just seconds to start reserving a car but then the whole thing ground to a halt and refused all attempts to access the reservation system.It is possible to see what the cars look like.
Cash.com.uk
Cutprice.com
Expeed.org.uk
Hot.org
Read the text and match the car-hire websites to the statement.Hiring a Car OnlineOnline car hire promises to be cheap, quick and convenient. But is it? Neil McDougall revs up his mouse Cash.com.ukOne to consider if you’re going to the States, although, after I'd worked through half the booking process, it returned an error message without telling me which element of the procedure needed adjusting. I got there in the end. There is an inspirational section with detailed directions for some of the great drives of America. Expeed.org.ukBook a flight with Expeed and when you continue on to the car-hire section, the software already knows where you are going and when. However, you seem to be restricted to cities with airports for your car hire, and additional taxes are presented in travel- agent speak. Cutprice.comIs currently offering an aggressive lowest rates guarantee, an extra discount for former Holtravel clients and a package of free gifts to sweeten the deal. It also commits to no insurance excess on any of their rentals anywhere.Hot.orgStraightforward to navigate, with plenty of information on rental requirements and rules of operation. There are photographs of the types of vehicles available, leaving no doubt what a 'premium' or 'compact' car is. It took me just seconds to start reserving a car but then the whole thing ground to a halt and refused all attempts to access the reservation system.You can only hire a car in certain locations.
Cash.com.uk
Cutprice.com
Expeed.org.uk
Hot.org
Read the text and match the car-hire websites to the statement.Hiring a Car OnlineOnline car hire promises to be cheap, quick and convenient. But is it? Neil McDougall revs up his mouse Cash.com.ukOne to consider if you’re going to the States, although, after I'd worked through half the booking process, it returned an error message without telling me which element of the procedure needed adjusting. I got there in the end. There is an inspirational section with detailed directions for some of the great drives of America. Expeed.org.ukBook a flight with Expeed and when you continue on to the car-hire section, the software already knows where you are going and when. However, you seem to be restricted to cities with airports for your car hire, and additional taxes are presented in travel- agent speak. Cutprice.comIs currently offering an aggressive lowest rates guarantee, an extra discount for former Holtravel clients and a package of free gifts to sweeten the deal. It also commits to no insurance excess on any of their rentals anywhere.Hot.orgStraightforward to navigate, with plenty of information on rental requirements and rules of operation. There are photographs of the types of vehicles available, leaving no doubt what a 'premium' or 'compact' car is. It took me just seconds to start reserving a car but then the whole thing ground to a halt and refused all attempts to access the reservation system.You will get cheaper car hire if you have used the company before.
Cash.com.uk
Cutprice.com
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