Defusing the BombSynopsis: Communicating with the irrational customer, client or business associate. Communicating with someone who is angry is one of the most difficult business challenges a business owner can face. Whether this angry person is a customer, client, an employee or outside third party, being on the receiving end of their heightened emotions is stressful. The challenge of someone pounding their fist, shouting at you or making unfair demands, forces you to respond as a disciplined, controlled and effective communicator. When you are put face to face with hostility, the natural human response is to react in kind; however, in most situations this is not an effective strategy. The key to breaking the cycle is to establish a mutual understanding. By finding a common ground, you can resolve the conflict and begin to build communication, step by step. In order to be an effective communicator you need to shift the exchange from the emotional to the rational. When faced with a situation where an angry and demanding individual or group has a list of complaints, the owner/manager needs to communicate both an understanding of their grievances and a willingness to collaborate to address them. The four simple steps to 'defuse the bomb' are: Inquire: Being a focused listener calls for inquiring about the other person's issues and concerns. The goal is to not interrupt and to encourage them with eye contact and head nods. Empathize: This means to connect with somebody on their emotional level. To relate to them you must first say, "I (appreciate, understand or share) your (frustration, doubt or concern)." Then, you must commiserate by saying how in the past you too have felt similarly. Ask permission: Asking whether or not an angry person would like to hear some relevant information puts them in control, and thereby decreases their tension. Permission questions communicate that you are a reasonable person doing your best to reach an understanding. Explain and offer choices: It's soothing for the upset individual to have a choice of solutions explained to them. The more solution options you offer for a course of action, the greater their sense of control becomes. This puts them in a more rational state where you can together begin to resolve the situation. It is important to realize that this model does not always move in a simple and linear fashion. You may often find yourself in a situation when some residual anger surfaces just when you thought the problem had been solved. You may have to recycle through the model again or spend a longer time on individual steps. For example, an angry customer may take a long time to vent their initial anger. Remembering that anger is essentially fear turned inside out, you must let them express it all before you can move to a more rational platform of cooperation. Four simple steps in communicating with angry customers are recommended in order to…
check_box Smooth out the problems
Avoid conflict
Create a mutual understanding
Make differences bigger
Defusing the BombSynopsis: Communicating with the irrational customer, client or business associate. Communicating with someone who is angry is one of the most difficult business challenges a business owner can face. Whether this angry person is a customer, client, an employee or outside third party, being on the receiving end of their heightened emotions is stressful. The challenge of someone pounding their fist, shouting at you or making unfair demands, forces you to respond as a disciplined, controlled and effective communicator. When you are put face to face with hostility, the natural human response is to react in kind; however, in most situations this is not an effective strategy. The key to breaking the cycle is to establish a mutual understanding. By finding a common ground, you can resolve the conflict and begin to build communication, step by step. In order to be an effective communicator you need to shift the exchange from the emotional to the rational. When faced with a situation where an angry and demanding individual or group has a list of complaints, the owner/manager needs to communicate both an understanding of their grievances and a willingness to collaborate to address them. The four simple steps to 'defuse the bomb' are: Inquire: Being a focused listener calls for inquiring about the other person's issues and concerns. The goal is to not interrupt and to encourage them with eye contact and head nods. Empathize: This means to connect with somebody on their emotional level. To relate to them you must first say, "I (appreciate, understand or share) your (frustration, doubt or concern)." Then, you must commiserate by saying how in the past you too have felt similarly. Ask permission: Asking whether or not an angry person would like to hear some relevant information puts them in control, and thereby decreases their tension. Permission questions communicate that you are a reasonable person doing your best to reach an understanding. Explain and offer choices: It's soothing for the upset individual to have a choice of solutions explained to them. The more solution options you offer for a course of action, the greater their sense of control becomes. This puts them in a more rational state where you can together begin to resolve the situation. It is important to realize that this model does not always move in a simple and linear fashion. You may often find yourself in a situation when some residual anger surfaces just when you thought the problem had been solved. You may have to recycle through the model again or spend a longer time on individual steps. For example, an angry customer may take a long time to vent their initial anger. Remembering that anger is essentially fear turned inside out, you must let them express it all before you can move to a more rational platform of cooperation. How is reacting in kind considered when facing the hostility?
check_box Very ineffective strategy
Polite response
Very effective strategy
Very natural response
Defusing the BombSynopsis: Communicating with the irrational customer, client or business associate. Communicating with someone who is angry is one of the most difficult business challenges a business owner can face. Whether this angry person is a customer, client, an employee or outside third party, being on the receiving end of their heightened emotions is stressful. The challenge of someone pounding their fist, shouting at you or making unfair demands, forces you to respond as a disciplined, controlled and effective communicator. When you are put face to face with hostility, the natural human response is to react in kind; however, in most situations this is not an effective strategy. The key to breaking the cycle is to establish a mutual understanding. By finding a common ground, you can resolve the conflict and begin to build communication, step by step. In order to be an effective communicator you need to shift the exchange from the emotional to the rational. When faced with a situation where an angry and demanding individual or group has a list of complaints, the owner/manager needs to communicate both an understanding of their grievances and a willingness to collaborate to address them. The four simple steps to 'defuse the bomb' are: Inquire: Being a focused listener calls for inquiring about the other person's issues and concerns. The goal is to not interrupt and to encourage them with eye contact and head nods. Empathize: This means to connect with somebody on their emotional level. To relate to them you must first say, "I (appreciate, understand or share) your (frustration, doubt or concern)." Then, you must commiserate by saying how in the past you too have felt similarly. Ask permission: Asking whether or not an angry person would like to hear some relevant information puts them in control, and thereby decreases their tension. Permission questions communicate that you are a reasonable person doing your best to reach an understanding. Explain and offer choices: It's soothing for the upset individual to have a choice of solutions explained to them. The more solution options you offer for a course of action, the greater their sense of control becomes. This puts them in a more rational state where you can together begin to resolve the situation. It is important to realize that this model does not always move in a simple and linear fashion. You may often find yourself in a situation when some residual anger surfaces just when you thought the problem had been solved. You may have to recycle through the model again or spend a longer time on individual steps. For example, an angry customer may take a long time to vent their initial anger. Remembering that anger is essentially fear turned inside out, you must let them express it all before you can move to a more rational platform of cooperation. In some cases, what do the irrational customers, clients or businesses associates may react?
check_box Both A,B and C
They may make unfair demands
They may pound their fist
They may shout at you
Defusing the BombSynopsis: Communicating with the irrational customer, client or business associate. Communicating with someone who is angry is one of the most difficult business challenges a business owner can face. Whether this angry person is a customer, client, an employee or outside third party, being on the receiving end of their heightened emotions is stressful. The challenge of someone pounding their fist, shouting at you or making unfair demands, forces you to respond as a disciplined, controlled and effective communicator. When you are put face to face with hostility, the natural human response is to react in kind; however, in most situations this is not an effective strategy. The key to breaking the cycle is to establish a mutual understanding. By finding a common ground, you can resolve the conflict and begin to build communication, step by step. In order to be an effective communicator you need to shift the exchange from the emotional to the rational. When faced with a situation where an angry and demanding individual or group has a list of complaints, the owner/manager needs to communicate both an understanding of their grievances and a willingness to collaborate to address them. The four simple steps to 'defuse the bomb' are: Inquire: Being a focused listener calls for inquiring about the other person's issues and concerns. The goal is to not interrupt and to encourage them with eye contact and head nods. Empathize: This means to connect with somebody on their emotional level. To relate to them you must first say, "I (appreciate, understand or share) your (frustration, doubt or concern)." Then, you must commiserate by saying how in the past you too have felt similarly. Ask permission: Asking whether or not an angry person would like to hear some relevant information puts them in control, and thereby decreases their tension. Permission questions communicate that you are a reasonable person doing your best to reach an understanding. Explain and offer choices: It's soothing for the upset individual to have a choice of solutions explained to them. The more solution options you offer for a course of action, the greater their sense of control becomes. This puts them in a more rational state where you can together begin to resolve the situation. It is important to realize that this model does not always move in a simple and linear fashion. You may often find yourself in a situation when some residual anger surfaces just when you thought the problem had been solved. You may have to recycle through the model again or spend a longer time on individual steps. For example, an angry customer may take a long time to vent their initial anger. Remembering that anger is essentially fear turned inside out, you must let them express it all before you can move to a more rational platform of cooperation. In the process of communicating with angry person a good listener should
check_box Interest in their issues and concerns and encourage them with eye contacts, head nods
Do not interrupt the speaker and make them believe that your are listening to them
Encourage them with eye contact only or pretend to do this
Focus on the speaker and listen to them without any other gesture of the body
Defusing the BombSynopsis: Communicating with the irrational customer, client or business associate. Communicating with someone who is angry is one of the most difficult business challenges a business owner can face. Whether this angry person is a customer, client, an employee or outside third party, being on the receiving end of their heightened emotions is stressful. The challenge of someone pounding their fist, shouting at you or making unfair demands, forces you to respond as a disciplined, controlled and effective communicator. When you are put face to face with hostility, the natural human response is to react in kind; however, in most situations this is not an effective strategy. The key to breaking the cycle is to establish a mutual understanding. By finding a common ground, you can resolve the conflict and begin to build communication, step by step. In order to be an effective communicator you need to shift the exchange from the emotional to the rational. When faced with a situation where an angry and demanding individual or group has a list of complaints, the owner/manager needs to communicate both an understanding of their grievances and a willingness to collaborate to address them. The four simple steps to 'defuse the bomb' are: Inquire: Being a focused listener calls for inquiring about the other person's issues and concerns. The goal is to not interrupt and to encourage them with eye contact and head nods. Empathize: This means to connect with somebody on their emotional level. To relate to them you must first say, "I (appreciate, understand or share) your (frustration, doubt or concern)." Then, you must commiserate by saying how in the past you too have felt similarly. Ask permission: Asking whether or not an angry person would like to hear some relevant information puts them in control, and thereby decreases their tension. Permission questions communicate that you are a reasonable person doing your best to reach an understanding. Explain and offer choices: It's soothing for the upset individual to have a choice of solutions explained to them. The more solution options you offer for a course of action, the greater their sense of control becomes. This puts them in a more rational state where you can together begin to resolve the situation. It is important to realize that this model does not always move in a simple and linear fashion. You may often find yourself in a situation when some residual anger surfaces just when you thought the problem had been solved. You may have to recycle through the model again or spend a longer time on individual steps. For example, an angry customer may take a long time to vent their initial anger. Remembering that anger is essentially fear turned inside out, you must let them express it all before you can move to a more rational platform of cooperation. One of the secrets to a successful communication to an annoyed customers is to…
check_box Let them do what they want
Let them express their felling
Let them release their anger
Let them speak out
Defusing the BombSynopsis: Communicating with the irrational customer, client or business associate. Communicating with someone who is angry is one of the most difficult business challenges a business owner can face. Whether this angry person is a customer, client, an employee or outside third party, being on the receiving end of their heightened emotions is stressful. The challenge of someone pounding their fist, shouting at you or making unfair demands, forces you to respond as a disciplined, controlled and effective communicator. When you are put face to face with hostility, the natural human response is to react in kind; however, in most situations this is not an effective strategy. The key to breaking the cycle is to establish a mutual understanding. By finding a common ground, you can resolve the conflict and begin to build communication, step by step. In order to be an effective communicator you need to shift the exchange from the emotional to the rational. When faced with a situation where an angry and demanding individual or group has a list of complaints, the owner/manager needs to communicate both an understanding of their grievances and a willingness to collaborate to address them. The four simple steps to 'defuse the bomb' are: Inquire: Being a focused listener calls for inquiring about the other person's issues and concerns. The goal is to not interrupt and to encourage them with eye contact and head nods. Empathize: This means to connect with somebody on their emotional level. To relate to them you must first say, "I (appreciate, understand or share) your (frustration, doubt or concern)." Then, you must commiserate by saying how in the past you too have felt similarly. Ask permission: Asking whether or not an angry person would like to hear some relevant information puts them in control, and thereby decreases their tension. Permission questions communicate that you are a reasonable person doing your best to reach an understanding. Explain and offer choices: It's soothing for the upset individual to have a choice of solutions explained to them. The more solution options you offer for a course of action, the greater their sense of control becomes. This puts them in a more rational state where you can together begin to resolve the situation. It is important to realize that this model does not always move in a simple and linear fashion. You may often find yourself in a situation when some residual anger surfaces just when you thought the problem had been solved. You may have to recycle through the model again or spend a longer time on individual steps. For example, an angry customer may take a long time to vent their initial anger. Remembering that anger is essentially fear turned inside out, you must let them express it all before you can move to a more rational platform of cooperation. The four steps given in the passages are just …
check_box Only a recommendation. Business owner may have other methods suitable for them
a model for business owner to follow
A perfect idea for business owner to follow
An optimal approach that business owner should take account
Defusing the BombSynopsis: Communicating with the irrational customer, client or business associate. Communicating with someone who is angry is one of the most difficult business challenges a business owner can face. Whether this angry person is a customer, client, an employee or outside third party, being on the receiving end of their heightened emotions is stressful. The challenge of someone pounding their fist, shouting at you or making unfair demands, forces you to respond as a disciplined, controlled and effective communicator. When you are put face to face with hostility, the natural human response is to react in kind; however, in most situations this is not an effective strategy. The key to breaking the cycle is to establish a mutual understanding. By finding a common ground, you can resolve the conflict and begin to build communication, step by step. In order to be an effective communicator you need to shift the exchange from the emotional to the rational. When faced with a situation where an angry and demanding individual or group has a list of complaints, the owner/manager needs to communicate both an understanding of their grievances and a willingness to collaborate to address them. The four simple steps to 'defuse the bomb' are: Inquire: Being a focused listener calls for inquiring about the other person's issues and concerns. The goal is to not interrupt and to encourage them with eye contact and head nods. Empathize: This means to connect with somebody on their emotional level. To relate to them you must first say, "I (appreciate, understand or share) your (frustration, doubt or concern)." Then, you must commiserate by saying how in the past you too have felt similarly. Ask permission: Asking whether or not an angry person would like to hear some relevant information puts them in control, and thereby decreases their tension. Permission questions communicate that you are a reasonable person doing your best to reach an understanding. Explain and offer choices: It's soothing for the upset individual to have a choice of solutions explained to them. The more solution options you offer for a course of action, the greater their sense of control becomes. This puts them in a more rational state where you can together begin to resolve the situation. It is important to realize that this model does not always move in a simple and linear fashion. You may often find yourself in a situation when some residual anger surfaces just when you thought the problem had been solved. You may have to recycle through the model again or spend a longer time on individual steps. For example, an angry customer may take a long time to vent their initial anger. Remembering that anger is essentially fear turned inside out, you must let them express it all before you can move to a more rational platform of cooperation. What does business owner should do in order to resolve the conflict and begin to build communication?
check_box They sould set up a mutual understanding
They sould establish a friendship
They sould keep silence
They sould shout their name
Defusing the BombSynopsis: Communicating with the irrational customer, client or business associate. Communicating with someone who is angry is one of the most difficult business challenges a business owner can face. Whether this angry person is a customer, client, an employee or outside third party, being on the receiving end of their heightened emotions is stressful. The challenge of someone pounding their fist, shouting at you or making unfair demands, forces you to respond as a disciplined, controlled and effective communicator. When you are put face to face with hostility, the natural human response is to react in kind; however, in most situations this is not an effective strategy. The key to breaking the cycle is to establish a mutual understanding. By finding a common ground, you can resolve the conflict and begin to build communication, step by step. In order to be an effective communicator you need to shift the exchange from the emotional to the rational. When faced with a situation where an angry and demanding individual or group has a list of complaints, the owner/manager needs to communicate both an understanding of their grievances and a willingness to collaborate to address them. The four simple steps to 'defuse the bomb' are: Inquire: Being a focused listener calls for inquiring about the other person's issues and concerns. The goal is to not interrupt and to encourage them with eye contact and head nods. Empathize: This means to connect with somebody on their emotional level. To relate to them you must first say, "I (appreciate, understand or share) your (frustration, doubt or concern)." Then, you must commiserate by saying how in the past you too have felt similarly. Ask permission: Asking whether or not an angry person would like to hear some relevant information puts them in control, and thereby decreases their tension. Permission questions communicate that you are a reasonable person doing your best to reach an understanding. Explain and offer choices: It's soothing for the upset individual to have a choice of solutions explained to them. The more solution options you offer for a course of action, the greater their sense of control becomes. This puts them in a more rational state where you can together begin to resolve the situation. It is important to realize that this model does not always move in a simple and linear fashion. You may often find yourself in a situation when some residual anger surfaces just when you thought the problem had been solved. You may have to recycle through the model again or spend a longer time on individual steps. For example, an angry customer may take a long time to vent their initial anger. Remembering that anger is essentially fear turned inside out, you must let them express it all before you can move to a more rational platform of cooperation. When communicating with these people, business owners should be
check_box Controlled, disciplined and effective
Angry and indiscipline
Kind and sympathized
Smooth and nice
Defusing the BombSynopsis: Communicating with the irrational customer, client or business associate. Communicating with someone who is angry is one of the most difficult business challenges a business owner can face. Whether this angry person is a customer, client, an employee or outside third party, being on the receiving end of their heightened emotions is stressful. The challenge of someone pounding their fist, shouting at you or making unfair demands, forces you to respond as a disciplined, controlled and effective communicator. When you are put face to face with hostility, the natural human response is to react in kind; however, in most situations this is not an effective strategy. The key to breaking the cycle is to establish a mutual understanding. By finding a common ground, you can resolve the conflict and begin to build communication, step by step. In order to be an effective communicator you need to shift the exchange from the emotional to the rational. When faced with a situation where an angry and demanding individual or group has a list of complaints, the owner/manager needs to communicate both an understanding of their grievances and a willingness to collaborate to address them. The four simple steps to 'defuse the bomb' are: Inquire: Being a focused listener calls for inquiring about the other person's issues and concerns. The goal is to not interrupt and to encourage them with eye contact and head nods. Empathize: This means to connect with somebody on their emotional level. To relate to them you must first say, "I (appreciate, understand or share) your (frustration, doubt or concern)." Then, you must commiserate by saying how in the past you too have felt similarly. Ask permission: Asking whether or not an angry person would like to hear some relevant information puts them in control, and thereby decreases their tension. Permission questions communicate that you are a reasonable person doing your best to reach an understanding. Explain and offer choices: It's soothing for the upset individual to have a choice of solutions explained to them. The more solution options you offer for a course of action, the greater their sense of control becomes. This puts them in a more rational state where you can together begin to resolve the situation. It is important to realize that this model does not always move in a simple and linear fashion. You may often find yourself in a situation when some residual anger surfaces just when you thought the problem had been solved. You may have to recycle through the model again or spend a longer time on individual steps. For example, an angry customer may take a long time to vent their initial anger. Remembering that anger is essentially fear turned inside out, you must let them express it all before you can move to a more rational platform of cooperation. When is a good communication set up?
check_box When the communicator prove rational rather than emotional
When the communicator change their attitude
When the communicator exchange their feeling
When the communicator prove emotional
Defusing the BombSynopsis: Communicating with the irrational customer, client or business associate. Communicating with someone who is angry is one of the most difficult business challenges a business owner can face. Whether this angry person is a customer, client, an employee or outside third party, being on the receiving end of their heightened emotions is stressful. The challenge of someone pounding their fist, shouting at you or making unfair demands, forces you to respond as a disciplined, controlled and effective communicator. When you are put face to face with hostility, the natural human response is to react in kind; however, in most situations this is not an effective strategy. The key to breaking the cycle is to establish a mutual understanding. By finding a common ground, you can resolve the conflict and begin to build communication, step by step. In order to be an effective communicator you need to shift the exchange from the emotional to the rational. When faced with a situation where an angry and demanding individual or group has a list of complaints, the owner/manager needs to communicate both an understanding of their grievances and a willingness to collaborate to address them. The four simple steps to 'defuse the bomb' are: Inquire: Being a focused listener calls for inquiring about the other person's issues and concerns. The goal is to not interrupt and to encourage them with eye contact and head nods. Empathize: This means to connect with somebody on their emotional level. To relate to them you must first say, "I (appreciate, understand or share) your (frustration, doubt or concern)." Then, you must commiserate by saying how in the past you too have felt similarly. Ask permission: Asking whether or not an angry person would like to hear some relevant information puts them in control, and thereby decreases their tension. Permission questions communicate that you are a reasonable person doing your best to reach an understanding. Explain and offer choices: It's soothing for the upset individual to have a choice of solutions explained to them. The more solution options you offer for a course of action, the greater their sense of control becomes. This puts them in a more rational state where you can together begin to resolve the situation. It is important to realize that this model does not always move in a simple and linear fashion. You may often find yourself in a situation when some residual anger surfaces just when you thought the problem had been solved. You may have to recycle through the model again or spend a longer time on individual steps. For example, an angry customer may take a long time to vent their initial anger. Remembering that anger is essentially fear turned inside out, you must let them express it all before you can move to a more rational platform of cooperation. When the demanding customers have a list of complaints the owner should
check_box Understand their complaint and willing to help them to solve the problem
Talk with them in a smooth way
Understand their complaint and talk with them in a very rational way
Willing to help them to solve the problem
Into the Unknown In the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes. A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep. Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave. If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago. In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.” Windows on an Alien World? An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”   What are divers are suggested?
check_box To move fast when being in blue holes and To follow a guideline when swimming through a blue hole
To follow a guideline when swimming through a blue hole
To move fast when being in blue holes
Not to discover the cave alone but in group
Into the UnknownIn the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes. A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep.Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave.If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago.In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.”Windows on an Alien World?An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”According to the passage, today some of blue holes in deep cave need to be
Explored
Got a line
Mapped
Protected
Into the UnknownIn the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes. A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep.Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave.If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago.In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.”Windows on an Alien World?An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”Exploration of blue holes are said to be
Extremely Important to researchers and scientists
Extremely pleasant and safe
Extremely poisonous and insignificant to scientists
Extremely risky, threatening but significant to scientists
Into the UnknownIn the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes. A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep.Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave.If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago.In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.”Windows on an Alien World?An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”How many blue holes are there in Bahamas?
People found more than 1000 holes
People found more than 10000 holes
People found more than 200 holes
People found more than 660 holes
Into the UnknownIn the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes. A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep.Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave.If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago.In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.”Windows on an Alien World?An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”Some blue hole creatures have …
Changed for millions years
Differed from each other for millions years
Stayed the same for millions years
Unchanged for thousands years
Into the UnknownIn the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes. A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep.Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave.If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago.In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.”Windows on an Alien World?An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”What are blue holes?
A kind of carven which contain saltwater
A kind of circular cave
A kind of inland under water cave
A kind of undersea cave
Into the UnknownIn the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes. A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep.Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave.If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago.In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.”Windows on an Alien World?An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”What are divers are suggested?
Both A and B
Not to discover the cave alone but in group
To follow a guideline when swimming through a blue hole
To move fast when being in blue holes
Into the UnknownIn the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes. A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep.Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave.If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago.In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.”Windows on an Alien World?An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”Where are the world’s most spectacular blue holes discovered?
In Bahamas
In Clarence Town
In Egypt
In Guam
Into the UnknownIn the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes. A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep.Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave.If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago.In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.”Windows on an Alien World?An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”Who does exploring the unknown suit?
All people who like discovering the unknown things
Both A,B and C
Scientists who need to explore for their work
The people who are healthy, brave, and wanna discover the unknown for their work
Into the UnknownIn the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes. A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep.Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave.If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago.In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.”Windows on an Alien World?An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”Why diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous?
because of dangerous animals
because of hydrogen gas
because of lack of oxygen
because of poisonous gas
Into the UnknownIn the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes. A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep.Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave.If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago.In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.”Windows on an Alien World?An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”Why do explorers risk their lives in such dangerous caves?
Because of the clues about astrobiology that they can get from this exploration
Because of the money that they can earn from this exploration
Because of the scientific information in these underwater caves
Because they like the risks and interest in exploring the unknown thing
Show me the moneyFive teenagers tell us how they’re already earning their own money.A. Hannah Ferguson‘The original idea was to set up a website so that other girls my age could order make-up cheaply. You see, I realized that if I bought lots of make-up from Hong Kong and then sold it through a website, I could make a profit. In the beginning, the money came from my parents, but I paid them back at the end of the first month. Gradually the site grew and now I send make-up all over the country, and we offer advice and tips online. I’ve got a couple of people who work for me part-time, like Alison – she’s our beautician. I want to finish my education, and hopefully keep the website running at the same time, and then go into business in a big way after university. The most important thing at this stage is that I’ve proved to myself that I can do it. The money is nice, of course, but it’s not the main reason I’m doing it.’ B. Craig Little ‘There’s never been that much money at home, especially since Mum and Dad got divorced, so I decided to try to make some myself. I’m only 14, so there are legal restrictions on what kind of work I can do, but I managed to get part-time work in a computer shop. It’s good because it’s something I know about, and it means that Mum doesn’t have to worry about giving me an allowance. I can even help her out with bills occasionally. I don’t spend much each week, so I usually manage to put a little in the bank for a rainy day, as they say.’ C. Naomi Webster ‘Starting at the bottom and working your way up certainly teaches you a lot. It means that I already understand how the place works where the money comes from. I’ve always wanted to go into hairdressing and I think it’s important to start earning your money as soon as you can. I mean, Mum and Dad work for their money, so why shouldn’t I? I don’t think about the future too much – I’m too busy learning and enjoying myself. I never have any money left at the end of the month, but I don’t mind because I know that I spend it on things I enjoy. D. Neil Chalmers ‘Delivering pizzas wouldn’t be my first choice as a career, but it’s fine for this stage of my life. I get to meet people, even if it is only briefly, and I like to be outdoors. Nobody’s going to get rich doing this, but the money does make a big difference and I notice it at the weekend when I can afford things that maybe others can’t. I think of myself as quite an ambitious person, and I’m planning on studying to be an architect, so I’m not sure this experience is that relevant, really. One thing I’ve learned is that you value money much more when you’ve earned it, and I appreciate the effort my mum and dad put in to make sure the family has enough. The worst thing about the job is the unsociable hours – when everyone’s out partying, I often have to be on my motorbike with a pizza.’ E. Julian Partridge ‘I couldn’t stand the idea of working, so I had to come up with some other way of making money. My parents usually give me what I need, but I was planning a camping holiday with friends and it was important to me that I earned the money somehow. I decided to go to eBay – the website where you can sell all your old stuff to people from around the world. I didn’t think I had anything to sell until my uncle pointed out that I had lots of old action figures. They were still in the boxes, and apparently people collect them. We sat down and worked out what they were worth and I sold them. In the end, we didn’t make as much as I’d hoped, but it was still enough to go on holiday with.’At the beginning stage, she …
check_box Borrowed money from her parents
Borrowed money from a bank
Lend their parents her money
Used her own money
Show me the moneyFive teenagers tell us how they’re already earning their own money.A. Hannah Ferguson‘The original idea was to set up a website so that other girls my age could order make-up cheaply. You see, I realized that if I bought lots of make-up from Hong Kong and then sold it through a website, I could make a profit. In the beginning, the money came from my parents, but I paid them back at the end of the first month. Gradually the site grew and now I send make-up all over the country, and we offer advice and tips online. I’ve got a couple of people who work for me part-time, like Alison – she’s our beautician. I want to finish my education, and hopefully keep the website running at the same time, and then go into business in a big way after university. The most important thing at this stage is that I’ve proved to myself that I can do it. The money is nice, of course, but it’s not the main reason I’m doing it.’ B. Craig Little ‘There’s never been that much money at home, especially since Mum and Dad got divorced, so I decided to try to make some myself. I’m only 14, so there are legal restrictions on what kind of work I can do, but I managed to get part-time work in a computer shop. It’s good because it’s something I know about, and it means that Mum doesn’t have to worry about giving me an allowance. I can even help her out with bills occasionally. I don’t spend much each week, so I usually manage to put a little in the bank for a rainy day, as they say.’ C. Naomi Webster ‘Starting at the bottom and working your way up certainly teaches you a lot. It means that I already understand how the place works where the money comes from. I’ve always wanted to go into hairdressing and I think it’s important to start earning your money as soon as you can. I mean, Mum and Dad work for their money, so why shouldn’t I? I don’t think about the future too much – I’m too busy learning and enjoying myself. I never have any money left at the end of the month, but I don’t mind because I know that I spend it on things I enjoy. D. Neil Chalmers ‘Delivering pizzas wouldn’t be my first choice as a career, but it’s fine for this stage of my life. I get to meet people, even if it is only briefly, and I like to be outdoors. Nobody’s going to get rich doing this, but the money does make a big difference and I notice it at the weekend when I can afford things that maybe others can’t. I think of myself as quite an ambitious person, and I’m planning on studying to be an architect, so I’m not sure this experience is that relevant, really. One thing I’ve learned is that you value money much more when you’ve earned it, and I appreciate the effort my mum and dad put in to make sure the family has enough. The worst thing about the job is the unsociable hours – when everyone’s out partying, I often have to be on my motorbike with a pizza.’ E. Julian Partridge ‘I couldn’t stand the idea of working, so I had to come up with some other way of making money. My parents usually give me what I need, but I was planning a camping holiday with friends and it was important to me that I earned the money somehow. I decided to go to eBay – the website where you can sell all your old stuff to people from around the world. I didn’t think I had anything to sell until my uncle pointed out that I had lots of old action figures. They were still in the boxes, and apparently people collect them. We sat down and worked out what they were worth and I sold them. In the end, we didn’t make as much as I’d hoped, but it was still enough to go on holiday with.’By which works does he gain money, in Partridge case?
check_box By selling his action figures on eBay
By collecting action figures on eBay
By selling his old items to his friends on holiday
By working for eBay
Show me the moneyFive teenagers tell us how they’re already earning their own money.A. Hannah Ferguson‘The original idea was to set up a website so that other girls my age could order make-up cheaply. You see, I realized that if I bought lots of make-up from Hong Kong and then sold it through a website, I could make a profit. In the beginning, the money came from my parents, but I paid them back at the end of the first month. Gradually the site grew and now I send make-up all over the country, and we offer advice and tips online. I’ve got a couple of people who work for me part-time, like Alison – she’s our beautician. I want to finish my education, and hopefully keep the website running at the same time, and then go into business in a big way after university. The most important thing at this stage is that I’ve proved to myself that I can do it. The money is nice, of course, but it’s not the main reason I’m doing it.’ B. Craig Little ‘There’s never been that much money at home, especially since Mum and Dad got divorced, so I decided to try to make some myself. I’m only 14, so there are legal restrictions on what kind of work I can do, but I managed to get part-time work in a computer shop. It’s good because it’s something I know about, and it means that Mum doesn’t have to worry about giving me an allowance. I can even help her out with bills occasionally. I don’t spend much each week, so I usually manage to put a little in the bank for a rainy day, as they say.’ C. Naomi Webster ‘Starting at the bottom and working your way up certainly teaches you a lot. It means that I already understand how the place works where the money comes from. I’ve always wanted to go into hairdressing and I think it’s important to start earning your money as soon as you can. I mean, Mum and Dad work for their money, so why shouldn’t I? I don’t think about the future too much – I’m too busy learning and enjoying myself. I never have any money left at the end of the month, but I don’t mind because I know that I spend it on things I enjoy. D. Neil Chalmers ‘Delivering pizzas wouldn’t be my first choice as a career, but it’s fine for this stage of my life. I get to meet people, even if it is only briefly, and I like to be outdoors. Nobody’s going to get rich doing this, but the money does make a big difference and I notice it at the weekend when I can afford things that maybe others can’t. I think of myself as quite an ambitious person, and I’m planning on studying to be an architect, so I’m not sure this experience is that relevant, really. One thing I’ve learned is that you value money much more when you’ve earned it, and I appreciate the effort my mum and dad put in to make sure the family has enough. The worst thing about the job is the unsociable hours – when everyone’s out partying, I often have to be on my motorbike with a pizza.’ E. Julian Partridge ‘I couldn’t stand the idea of working, so I had to come up with some other way of making money. My parents usually give me what I need, but I was planning a camping holiday with friends and it was important to me that I earned the money somehow. I decided to go to eBay – the website where you can sell all your old stuff to people from around the world. I didn’t think I had anything to sell until my uncle pointed out that I had lots of old action figures. They were still in the boxes, and apparently people collect them. We sat down and worked out what they were worth and I sold them. In the end, we didn’t make as much as I’d hoped, but it was still enough to go on holiday with.’Chalmers’ first choice as a carrier is delivering pizza because
He could have chance to meet people
He hasn’t got any other choice
He likes to be out door
He think that it could be suitable for him at that stage
Show me the moneyFive teenagers tell us how they’re already earning their own money.A. Hannah Ferguson‘The original idea was to set up a website so that other girls my age could order make-up cheaply. You see, I realized that if I bought lots of make-up from Hong Kong and then sold it through a website, I could make a profit. In the beginning, the money came from my parents, but I paid them back at the end of the first month. Gradually the site grew and now I send make-up all over the country, and we offer advice and tips online. I’ve got a couple of people who work for me part-time, like Alison – she’s our beautician. I want to finish my education, and hopefully keep the website running at the same time, and then go into business in a big way after university. The most important thing at this stage is that I’ve proved to myself that I can do it. The money is nice, of course, but it’s not the main reason I’m doing it.’ B. Craig Little ‘There’s never been that much money at home, especially since Mum and Dad got divorced, so I decided to try to make some myself. I’m only 14, so there are legal restrictions on what kind of work I can do, but I managed to get part-time work in a computer shop. It’s good because it’s something I know about, and it means that Mum doesn’t have to worry about giving me an allowance. I can even help her out with bills occasionally. I don’t spend much each week, so I usually manage to put a little in the bank for a rainy day, as they say.’ C. Naomi Webster ‘Starting at the bottom and working your way up certainly teaches you a lot. It means that I already understand how the place works where the money comes from. I’ve always wanted to go into hairdressing and I think it’s important to start earning your money as soon as you can. I mean, Mum and Dad work for their money, so why shouldn’t I? I don’t think about the future too much – I’m too busy learning and enjoying myself. I never have any money left at the end of the month, but I don’t mind because I know that I spend it on things I enjoy. D. Neil Chalmers ‘Delivering pizzas wouldn’t be my first choice as a career, but it’s fine for this stage of my life. I get to meet people, even if it is only briefly, and I like to be outdoors. Nobody’s going to get rich doing this, but the money does make a big difference and I notice it at the weekend when I can afford things that maybe others can’t. I think of myself as quite an ambitious person, and I’m planning on studying to be an architect, so I’m not sure this experience is that relevant, really. One thing I’ve learned is that you value money much more when you’ve earned it, and I appreciate the effort my mum and dad put in to make sure the family has enough. The worst thing about the job is the unsociable hours – when everyone’s out partying, I often have to be on my motorbike with a pizza.’ E. Julian Partridge ‘I couldn’t stand the idea of working, so I had to come up with some other way of making money. My parents usually give me what I need, but I was planning a camping holiday with friends and it was important to me that I earned the money somehow. I decided to go to eBay – the website where you can sell all your old stuff to people from around the world. I didn’t think I had anything to sell until my uncle pointed out that I had lots of old action figures. They were still in the boxes, and apparently people collect them. We sat down and worked out what they were worth and I sold them. In the end, we didn’t make as much as I’d hoped, but it was still enough to go on holiday with.’For Webster, earning money makes her…
check_box Growing up
Confident
Gloomy
Joyful
Show me the moneyFive teenagers tell us how they’re already earning their own money.A. Hannah Ferguson‘The original idea was to set up a website so that other girls my age could order make-up cheaply. You see, I realized that if I bought lots of make-up from Hong Kong and then sold it through a website, I could make a profit. In the beginning, the money came from my parents, but I paid them back at the end of the first month. Gradually the site grew and now I send make-up all over the country, and we offer advice and tips online. I’ve got a couple of people who work for me part-time, like Alison – she’s our beautician. I want to finish my education, and hopefully keep the website running at the same time, and then go into business in a big way after university. The most important thing at this stage is that I’ve proved to myself that I can do it. The money is nice, of course, but it’s not the main reason I’m doing it.’ B. Craig Little ‘There’s never been that much money at home, especially since Mum and Dad got divorced, so I decided to try to make some myself. I’m only 14, so there are legal restrictions on what kind of work I can do, but I managed to get part-time work in a computer shop. It’s good because it’s something I know about, and it means that Mum doesn’t have to worry about giving me an allowance. I can even help her out with bills occasionally. I don’t spend much each week, so I usually manage to put a little in the bank for a rainy day, as they say.’ C. Naomi Webster ‘Starting at the bottom and working your way up certainly teaches you a lot. It means that I already understand how the place works where the money comes from. I’ve always wanted to go into hairdressing and I think it’s important to start earning your money as soon as you can. I mean, Mum and Dad work for their money, so why shouldn’t I? I don’t think about the future too much – I’m too busy learning and enjoying myself. I never have any money left at the end of the month, but I don’t mind because I know that I spend it on things I enjoy. D. Neil Chalmers ‘Delivering pizzas wouldn’t be my first choice as a career, but it’s fine for this stage of my life. I get to meet people, even if it is only briefly, and I like to be outdoors. Nobody’s going to get rich doing this, but the money does make a big difference and I notice it at the weekend when I can afford things that maybe others can’t. I think of myself as quite an ambitious person, and I’m planning on studying to be an architect, so I’m not sure this experience is that relevant, really. One thing I’ve learned is that you value money much more when you’ve earned it, and I appreciate the effort my mum and dad put in to make sure the family has enough. The worst thing about the job is the unsociable hours – when everyone’s out partying, I often have to be on my motorbike with a pizza.’ E. Julian Partridge ‘I couldn’t stand the idea of working, so I had to come up with some other way of making money. My parents usually give me what I need, but I was planning a camping holiday with friends and it was important to me that I earned the money somehow. I decided to go to eBay – the website where you can sell all your old stuff to people from around the world. I didn’t think I had anything to sell until my uncle pointed out that I had lots of old action figures. They were still in the boxes, and apparently people collect them. We sat down and worked out what they were worth and I sold them. In the end, we didn’t make as much as I’d hoped, but it was still enough to go on holiday with.’How are the young people described in the five passages?
They are of passive thinking, and always like receiving the money from their parents.
They are very active, self confident and wanna prove themselves that they can earn money in any condition
They are very inactive, doubtful but wanna prove themselves that they can earn money at any price
They are very nice, active thinking and wanna prove themselves that they can do everything at the same time
Show me the moneyFive teenagers tell us how they’re already earning their own money.A. Hannah Ferguson‘The original idea was to set up a website so that other girls my age could order make-up cheaply. You see, I realized that if I bought lots of make-up from Hong Kong and then sold it through a website, I could make a profit. In the beginning, the money came from my parents, but I paid them back at the end of the first month. Gradually the site grew and now I send make-up all over the country, and we offer advice and tips online. I’ve got a couple of people who work for me part-time, like Alison – she’s our beautician. I want to finish my education, and hopefully keep the website running at the same time, and then go into business in a big way after university. The most important thing at this stage is that I’ve proved to myself that I can do it. The money is nice, of course, but it’s not the main reason I’m doing it.’ B. Craig Little ‘There’s never been that much money at home, especially since Mum and Dad got divorced, so I decided to try to make some myself. I’m only 14, so there are legal restrictions on what kind of work I can do, but I managed to get part-time work in a computer shop. It’s good because it’s something I know about, and it means that Mum doesn’t have to worry about giving me an allowance. I can even help her out with bills occasionally. I don’t spend much each week, so I usually manage to put a little in the bank for a rainy day, as they say.’ C. Naomi Webster ‘Starting at the bottom and working your way up certainly teaches you a lot. It means that I already understand how the place works where the money comes from. I’ve always wanted to go into hairdressing and I think it’s important to start earning your money as soon as you can. I mean, Mum and Dad work for their money, so why shouldn’t I? I don’t think about the future too much – I’m too busy learning and enjoying myself. I never have any money left at the end of the month, but I don’t mind because I know that I spend it on things I enjoy. D. Neil Chalmers ‘Delivering pizzas wouldn’t be my first choice as a career, but it’s fine for this stage of my life. I get to meet people, even if it is only briefly, and I like to be outdoors. Nobody’s going to get rich doing this, but the money does make a big difference and I notice it at the weekend when I can afford things that maybe others can’t. I think of myself as quite an ambitious person, and I’m planning on studying to be an architect, so I’m not sure this experience is that relevant, really. One thing I’ve learned is that you value money much more when you’ve earned it, and I appreciate the effort my mum and dad put in to make sure the family has enough. The worst thing about the job is the unsociable hours – when everyone’s out partying, I often have to be on my motorbike with a pizza.’ E. Julian Partridge ‘I couldn’t stand the idea of working, so I had to come up with some other way of making money. My parents usually give me what I need, but I was planning a camping holiday with friends and it was important to me that I earned the money somehow. I decided to go to eBay – the website where you can sell all your old stuff to people from around the world. I didn’t think I had anything to sell until my uncle pointed out that I had lots of old action figures. They were still in the boxes, and apparently people collect them. We sat down and worked out what they were worth and I sold them. In the end, we didn’t make as much as I’d hoped, but it was still enough to go on holiday with.’In Ferguson’s opinion, the most important thing when going into businesses is…
The family support
The fund
The profit
The self confidence
Show me the moneyFive teenagers tell us how they’re already earning their own money.A. Hannah Ferguson‘The original idea was to set up a website so that other girls my age could order make-up cheaply. You see, I realized that if I bought lots of make-up from Hong Kong and then sold it through a website, I could make a profit. In the beginning, the money came from my parents, but I paid them back at the end of the first month. Gradually the site grew and now I send make-up all over the country, and we offer advice and tips online. I’ve got a couple of people who work for me part-time, like Alison – she’s our beautician. I want to finish my education, and hopefully keep the website running at the same time, and then go into business in a big way after university. The most important thing at this stage is that I’ve proved to myself that I can do it. The money is nice, of course, but it’s not the main reason I’m doing it.’ B. Craig Little ‘There’s never been that much money at home, especially since Mum and Dad got divorced, so I decided to try to make some myself. I’m only 14, so there are legal restrictions on what kind of work I can do, but I managed to get part-time work in a computer shop. It’s good because it’s something I know about, and it means that Mum doesn’t have to worry about giving me an allowance. I can even help her out with bills occasionally. I don’t spend much each week, so I usually manage to put a little in the bank for a rainy day, as they say.’ C. Naomi Webster ‘Starting at the bottom and working your way up certainly teaches you a lot. It means that I already understand how the place works where the money comes from. I’ve always wanted to go into hairdressing and I think it’s important to start earning your money as soon as you can. I mean, Mum and Dad work for their money, so why shouldn’t I? I don’t think about the future too much – I’m too busy learning and enjoying myself. I never have any money left at the end of the month, but I don’t mind because I know that I spend it on things I enjoy. D. Neil Chalmers ‘Delivering pizzas wouldn’t be my first choice as a career, but it’s fine for this stage of my life. I get to meet people, even if it is only briefly, and I like to be outdoors. Nobody’s going to get rich doing this, but the money does make a big difference and I notice it at the weekend when I can afford things that maybe others can’t. I think of myself as quite an ambitious person, and I’m planning on studying to be an architect, so I’m not sure this experience is that relevant, really. One thing I’ve learned is that you value money much more when you’ve earned it, and I appreciate the effort my mum and dad put in to make sure the family has enough. The worst thing about the job is the unsociable hours – when everyone’s out partying, I often have to be on my motorbike with a pizza.’ E. Julian Partridge ‘I couldn’t stand the idea of working, so I had to come up with some other way of making money. My parents usually give me what I need, but I was planning a camping holiday with friends and it was important to me that I earned the money somehow. I decided to go to eBay – the website where you can sell all your old stuff to people from around the world. I didn’t think I had anything to sell until my uncle pointed out that I had lots of old action figures. They were still in the boxes, and apparently people collect them. We sat down and worked out what they were worth and I sold them. In the end, we didn’t make as much as I’d hoped, but it was still enough to go on holiday with.’Little got a par-time work when she was 14 and what did she do with her money earned?
Both B and C
Saved the money for rainy day
Sometime paid the family bill
Squandered her money
Show me the moneyFive teenagers tell us how they’re already earning their own money.A. Hannah Ferguson‘The original idea was to set up a website so that other girls my age could order make-up cheaply. You see, I realized that if I bought lots of make-up from Hong Kong and then sold it through a website, I could make a profit. In the beginning, the money came from my parents, but I paid them back at the end of the first month. Gradually the site grew and now I send make-up all over the country, and we offer advice and tips online. I’ve got a couple of people who work for me part-time, like Alison – she’s our beautician. I want to finish my education, and hopefully keep the website running at the same time, and then go into business in a big way after university. The most important thing at this stage is that I’ve proved to myself that I can do it. The money is nice, of course, but it’s not the main reason I’m doing it.’ B. Craig Little ‘There’s never been that much money at home, especially since Mum and Dad got divorced, so I decided to try to make some myself. I’m only 14, so there are legal restrictions on what kind of work I can do, but I managed to get part-time work in a computer shop. It’s good because it’s something I know about, and it means that Mum doesn’t have to worry about giving me an allowance. I can even help her out with bills occasionally. I don’t spend much each week, so I usually manage to put a little in the bank for a rainy day, as they say.’ C. Naomi Webster ‘Starting at the bottom and working your way up certainly teaches you a lot. It means that I already understand how the place works where the money comes from. I’ve always wanted to go into hairdressing and I think it’s important to start earning your money as soon as you can. I mean, Mum and Dad work for their money, so why shouldn’t I? I don’t think about the future too much – I’m too busy learning and enjoying myself. I never have any money left at the end of the month, but I don’t mind because I know that I spend it on things I enjoy. D. Neil Chalmers ‘Delivering pizzas wouldn’t be my first choice as a career, but it’s fine for this stage of my life. I get to meet people, even if it is only briefly, and I like to be outdoors. Nobody’s going to get rich doing this, but the money does make a big difference and I notice it at the weekend when I can afford things that maybe others can’t. I think of myself as quite an ambitious person, and I’m planning on studying to be an architect, so I’m not sure this experience is that relevant, really. One thing I’ve learned is that you value money much more when you’ve earned it, and I appreciate the effort my mum and dad put in to make sure the family has enough. The worst thing about the job is the unsociable hours – when everyone’s out partying, I often have to be on my motorbike with a pizza.’ E. Julian Partridge ‘I couldn’t stand the idea of working, so I had to come up with some other way of making money. My parents usually give me what I need, but I was planning a camping holiday with friends and it was important to me that I earned the money somehow. I decided to go to eBay – the website where you can sell all your old stuff to people from around the world. I didn’t think I had anything to sell until my uncle pointed out that I had lots of old action figures. They were still in the boxes, and apparently people collect them. We sat down and worked out what they were worth and I sold them. In the end, we didn’t make as much as I’d hoped, but it was still enough to go on holiday with.’What does Chalmers think when taking the part-time job?
He thinks he can afford his mom and dad
He thinks he is an ambitious person and is easy to be allured by money
He thinks people make the money much more valuable when they earn it by themselves
He thinks people often are seduced by money and earning money at any price
Show me the moneyFive teenagers tell us how they’re already earning their own money.A. Hannah Ferguson‘The original idea was to set up a website so that other girls my age could order make-up cheaply. You see, I realized that if I bought lots of make-up from Hong Kong and then sold it through a website, I could make a profit. In the beginning, the money came from my parents, but I paid them back at the end of the first month. Gradually the site grew and now I send make-up all over the country, and we offer advice and tips online. I’ve got a couple of people who work for me part-time, like Alison – she’s our beautician. I want to finish my education, and hopefully keep the website running at the same time, and then go into business in a big way after university. The most important thing at this stage is that I’ve proved to myself that I can do it. The money is nice, of course, but it’s not the main reason I’m doing it.’ B. Craig Little ‘There’s never been that much money at home, especially since Mum and Dad got divorced, so I decided to try to make some myself. I’m only 14, so there are legal restrictions on what kind of work I can do, but I managed to get part-time work in a computer shop. It’s good because it’s something I know about, and it means that Mum doesn’t have to worry about giving me an allowance. I can even help her out with bills occasionally. I don’t spend much each week, so I usually manage to put a little in the bank for a rainy day, as they say.’ C. Naomi Webster ‘Starting at the bottom and working your way up certainly teaches you a lot. It means that I already understand how the place works where the money comes from. I’ve always wanted to go into hairdressing and I think it’s important to start earning your money as soon as you can. I mean, Mum and Dad work for their money, so why shouldn’t I? I don’t think about the future too much – I’m too busy learning and enjoying myself. I never have any money left at the end of the month, but I don’t mind because I know that I spend it on things I enjoy. D. Neil Chalmers ‘Delivering pizzas wouldn’t be my first choice as a career, but it’s fine for this stage of my life. I get to meet people, even if it is only briefly, and I like to be outdoors. Nobody’s going to get rich doing this, but the money does make a big difference and I notice it at the weekend when I can afford things that maybe others can’t. I think of myself as quite an ambitious person, and I’m planning on studying to be an architect, so I’m not sure this experience is that relevant, really. One thing I’ve learned is that you value money much more when you’ve earned it, and I appreciate the effort my mum and dad put in to make sure the family has enough. The worst thing about the job is the unsociable hours – when everyone’s out partying, I often have to be on my motorbike with a pizza.’ E. Julian Partridge ‘I couldn’t stand the idea of working, so I had to come up with some other way of making money. My parents usually give me what I need, but I was planning a camping holiday with friends and it was important to me that I earned the money somehow. I decided to go to eBay – the website where you can sell all your old stuff to people from around the world. I didn’t think I had anything to sell until my uncle pointed out that I had lots of old action figures. They were still in the boxes, and apparently people collect them. We sat down and worked out what they were worth and I sold them. In the end, we didn’t make as much as I’d hoped, but it was still enough to go on holiday with.’What is Ferguson’ first idea when setting up a web?
To buy products from Hong kong
To make profit
To ordermake-up from Asian countries
To sell make-up cheaply to the girl of her age
The Global Product – the World as a Single MarketAFor business, the world is becoming a smaller place. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier, communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world and trade barriers are breaking down. Consequently, there are tremendous opportunities for businesses to broaden their markets into foreign countries. The challenge facing those promoting products globally is to determine whether marketing methods should be adapted to different markets based on specific cultural factors.BMany theorists argue that, with the ‘shrinking of the world, global standardization is inevitable. Over time, and as economies develop, it has been suggested that consumer buying patterns will blend into on another and national differences may disappear. Kellogg, the American breakfast cereal producer, has been very influential in challenging consumption patterns in countries outside the United States. In France, for example, breakfast cereals were almost unheard of, and market research suggested that the market was closed to companies like Kellogg. However, today, there is a demand for breakfast cereal across France. Nevertheless, the standardization of products for worldwide consumption in this way is rarely the most effective strategy as it evident from an analysis of the following key aspects of global marketing.CFirst of all, it is considered better business practice by many large, established companies to change their products from one country to the next. Take the example of Coca-Cola. The recipe for this drink is change to suit local tastes – the brand in the US is much sweeter than in the UK, whilst in India the product’s herbs and flouring are given more emphasis. In terms of the car industry, it would be too expensive for manufacturers to develop and build completely different vehicles for different markets yet a single global model is likely to appeal to no one. In response to varying needs, Nissan, for example, sells in 75 different markets, but has eight different chassis designs. The Ford Mondeo was designed with key features from different markets in mind in an effort to make its appeal as broad as possible. The best policy, as far as most multi-national companies are concerned, is to adapt their product to a particular market.DSecondly, it is important to consider whether a product should be launched simultaneously in all countries (known as a ‘sprinkler launch’) or sequentially in one market after another (‘a waterfall launch’). In practice, most companies producing consumer goods tend to launch a new product in one or two markets at a time rather than attempt to launch a product across a range of countries at a single time. Many high-tech products such as Blu-ray players reach the market in Japan before reaching the UK. Hollywood films are often seen in the United States weeks or months before they arrive in other countries.EThe advantage for firms is that it is easier to launch in one market at a time. Effort and concentration can be focused to ensure the best possible entry into the market. Moreover, for technical products especially, any initial problems become apparent in a single market and can be corrected prior to launch elsewhere. Even though this method can be time-consuming, it is usually a safer approach than a simultaneous launch. Despite this, in certain highly competitive markets such as computer chips, companies such as Intel tend to launch their new products internationally at the same time to keep the product ahead of its competitors. FThe final consideration when planning to enter a global market, rather than assuming the product will suit all markets is to take cultural differences into account. Prices have to convert to a different currency and any literature has to be translated into a different language. There are also less tangible differences. It is quite possible that common practices in one country can cause offence and have grave consequences for business success in another. In one situation in China, a western businessman caused offence to a group of local delegates because he started to fill out the paperwork immediately after shaking hands on a deal. Completing the legal documents so soon after the negotiations was regarded as undermining the host’s trust. Knowledge about such culture differences is absolutely vital.GTherefore, if a company is attempting to broaden its operations globally, it must take the time to find out about local customs and methods of business operation. Equally important is to ensure that such information is available to all necessary workers in the organization, For example, in order to attempt to avoid causing offence to passengers from abroad, British Airways aims to raise awareness of cultural differences amongst all its cabin crew.HIt can be concluded that global standardization of products to ‘fit’ all markets unlikely to be the most viable option. Marketing methods employed will depend on many factors, such as the type of products, the degree of competition, the reputation of the firm and/or the brand, the state of the economy into which the product is to be launched and how and when to launch. In short, the key to marketing success on a global level is to have sufficient information on how cultural differences are likely affect the marketing of a product and then allow the appropriate decisions to be made. A businesses are considered better if…
They change the products to make difference
They know how to adapt their products to a particular market
They sell their products in different countries
They use the local employees
The Global Product – the World as a Single MarketAFor business, the world is becoming a smaller place. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier, communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world and trade barriers are breaking down. Consequently, there are tremendous opportunities for businesses to broaden their markets into foreign countries. The challenge facing those promoting products globally is to determine whether marketing methods should be adapted to different markets based on specific cultural factors.BMany theorists argue that, with the ‘shrinking of the world, global standardization is inevitable. Over time, and as economies develop, it has been suggested that consumer buying patterns will blend into on another and national differences may disappear. Kellogg, the American breakfast cereal producer, has been very influential in challenging consumption patterns in countries outside the United States. In France, for example, breakfast cereals were almost unheard of, and market research suggested that the market was closed to companies like Kellogg. However, today, there is a demand for breakfast cereal across France. Nevertheless, the standardization of products for worldwide consumption in this way is rarely the most effective strategy as it evident from an analysis of the following key aspects of global marketing.CFirst of all, it is considered better business practice by many large, established companies to change their products from one country to the next. Take the example of Coca-Cola. The recipe for this drink is change to suit local tastes – the brand in the US is much sweeter than in the UK, whilst in India the product’s herbs and flouring are given more emphasis. In terms of the car industry, it would be too expensive for manufacturers to develop and build completely different vehicles for different markets yet a single global model is likely to appeal to no one. In response to varying needs, Nissan, for example, sells in 75 different markets, but has eight different chassis designs. The Ford Mondeo was designed with key features from different markets in mind in an effort to make its appeal as broad as possible. The best policy, as far as most multi-national companies are concerned, is to adapt their product to a particular market.DSecondly, it is important to consider whether a product should be launched simultaneously in all countries (known as a ‘sprinkler launch’) or sequentially in one market after another (‘a waterfall launch’). In practice, most companies producing consumer goods tend to launch a new product in one or two markets at a time rather than attempt to launch a product across a range of countries at a single time. Many high-tech products such as Blu-ray players reach the market in Japan before reaching the UK. Hollywood films are often seen in the United States weeks or months before they arrive in other countries.EThe advantage for firms is that it is easier to launch in one market at a time. Effort and concentration can be focused to ensure the best possible entry into the market. Moreover, for technical products especially, any initial problems become apparent in a single market and can be corrected prior to launch elsewhere. Even though this method can be time-consuming, it is usually a safer approach than a simultaneous launch. Despite this, in certain highly competitive markets such as computer chips, companies such as Intel tend to launch their new products internationally at the same time to keep the product ahead of its competitors. FThe final consideration when planning to enter a global market, rather than assuming the product will suit all markets is to take cultural differences into account. Prices have to convert to a different currency and any literature has to be translated into a different language. There are also less tangible differences. It is quite possible that common practices in one country can cause offence and have grave consequences for business success in another. In one situation in China, a western businessman caused offence to a group of local delegates because he started to fill out the paperwork immediately after shaking hands on a deal. Completing the legal documents so soon after the negotiations was regarded as undermining the host’s trust. Knowledge about such culture differences is absolutely vital.GTherefore, if a company is attempting to broaden its operations globally, it must take the time to find out about local customs and methods of business operation. Equally important is to ensure that such information is available to all necessary workers in the organization, For example, in order to attempt to avoid causing offence to passengers from abroad, British Airways aims to raise awareness of cultural differences amongst all its cabin crew.HIt can be concluded that global standardization of products to ‘fit’ all markets unlikely to be the most viable option. Marketing methods employed will depend on many factors, such as the type of products, the degree of competition, the reputation of the firm and/or the brand, the state of the economy into which the product is to be launched and how and when to launch. In short, the key to marketing success on a global level is to have sufficient information on how cultural differences are likely affect the marketing of a product and then allow the appropriate decisions to be made. Businesses have so many opportunities to expand their markets into foreign country because
Communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world
the process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nation have been so quick in recent years
The world is becoming a smaller place
Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier
The Global Product – the World as a Single MarketAFor business, the world is becoming a smaller place. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier, communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world and trade barriers are breaking down. Consequently, there are tremendous opportunities for businesses to broaden their markets into foreign countries. The challenge facing those promoting products globally is to determine whether marketing methods should be adapted to different markets based on specific cultural factors.BMany theorists argue that, with the ‘shrinking of the world, global standardization is inevitable. Over time, and as economies develop, it has been suggested that consumer buying patterns will blend into on another and national differences may disappear. Kellogg, the American breakfast cereal producer, has been very influential in challenging consumption patterns in countries outside the United States. In France, for example, breakfast cereals were almost unheard of, and market research suggested that the market was closed to companies like Kellogg. However, today, there is a demand for breakfast cereal across France. Nevertheless, the standardization of products for worldwide consumption in this way is rarely the most effective strategy as it evident from an analysis of the following key aspects of global marketing.CFirst of all, it is considered better business practice by many large, established companies to change their products from one country to the next. Take the example of Coca-Cola. The recipe for this drink is change to suit local tastes – the brand in the US is much sweeter than in the UK, whilst in India the product’s herbs and flouring are given more emphasis. In terms of the car industry, it would be too expensive for manufacturers to develop and build completely different vehicles for different markets yet a single global model is likely to appeal to no one. In response to varying needs, Nissan, for example, sells in 75 different markets, but has eight different chassis designs. The Ford Mondeo was designed with key features from different markets in mind in an effort to make its appeal as broad as possible. The best policy, as far as most multi-national companies are concerned, is to adapt their product to a particular market.DSecondly, it is important to consider whether a product should be launched simultaneously in all countries (known as a ‘sprinkler launch’) or sequentially in one market after another (‘a waterfall launch’). In practice, most companies producing consumer goods tend to launch a new product in one or two markets at a time rather than attempt to launch a product across a range of countries at a single time. Many high-tech products such as Blu-ray players reach the market in Japan before reaching the UK. Hollywood films are often seen in the United States weeks or months before they arrive in other countries.EThe advantage for firms is that it is easier to launch in one market at a time. Effort and concentration can be focused to ensure the best possible entry into the market. Moreover, for technical products especially, any initial problems become apparent in a single market and can be corrected prior to launch elsewhere. Even though this method can be time-consuming, it is usually a safer approach than a simultaneous launch. Despite this, in certain highly competitive markets such as computer chips, companies such as Intel tend to launch their new products internationally at the same time to keep the product ahead of its competitors. FThe final consideration when planning to enter a global market, rather than assuming the product will suit all markets is to take cultural differences into account. Prices have to convert to a different currency and any literature has to be translated into a different language. There are also less tangible differences. It is quite possible that common practices in one country can cause offence and have grave consequences for business success in another. In one situation in China, a western businessman caused offence to a group of local delegates because he started to fill out the paperwork immediately after shaking hands on a deal. Completing the legal documents so soon after the negotiations was regarded as undermining the host’s trust. Knowledge about such culture differences is absolutely vital.GTherefore, if a company is attempting to broaden its operations globally, it must take the time to find out about local customs and methods of business operation. Equally important is to ensure that such information is available to all necessary workers in the organization, For example, in order to attempt to avoid causing offence to passengers from abroad, British Airways aims to raise awareness of cultural differences amongst all its cabin crew.HIt can be concluded that global standardization of products to ‘fit’ all markets unlikely to be the most viable option. Marketing methods employed will depend on many factors, such as the type of products, the degree of competition, the reputation of the firm and/or the brand, the state of the economy into which the product is to be launched and how and when to launch. In short, the key to marketing success on a global level is to have sufficient information on how cultural differences are likely affect the marketing of a product and then allow the appropriate decisions to be made. For businesses, cultural difference is considered as
check_box Key factors to take into account
Exceptional factors to take into account
Inevitable factors to take into account
Separate factors to take into account
The Global Product – the World as a Single MarketAFor business, the world is becoming a smaller place. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier, communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world and trade barriers are breaking down. Consequently, there are tremendous opportunities for businesses to broaden their markets into foreign countries. The challenge facing those promoting products globally is to determine whether marketing methods should be adapted to different markets based on specific cultural factors.BMany theorists argue that, with the ‘shrinking of the world, global standardization is inevitable. Over time, and as economies develop, it has been suggested that consumer buying patterns will blend into on another and national differences may disappear. Kellogg, the American breakfast cereal producer, has been very influential in challenging consumption patterns in countries outside the United States. In France, for example, breakfast cereals were almost unheard of, and market research suggested that the market was closed to companies like Kellogg. However, today, there is a demand for breakfast cereal across France. Nevertheless, the standardization of products for worldwide consumption in this way is rarely the most effective strategy as it evident from an analysis of the following key aspects of global marketing.CFirst of all, it is considered better business practice by many large, established companies to change their products from one country to the next. Take the example of Coca-Cola. The recipe for this drink is change to suit local tastes – the brand in the US is much sweeter than in the UK, whilst in India the product’s herbs and flouring are given more emphasis. In terms of the car industry, it would be too expensive for manufacturers to develop and build completely different vehicles for different markets yet a single global model is likely to appeal to no one. In response to varying needs, Nissan, for example, sells in 75 different markets, but has eight different chassis designs. The Ford Mondeo was designed with key features from different markets in mind in an effort to make its appeal as broad as possible. The best policy, as far as most multi-national companies are concerned, is to adapt their product to a particular market.DSecondly, it is important to consider whether a product should be launched simultaneously in all countries (known as a ‘sprinkler launch’) or sequentially in one market after another (‘a waterfall launch’). In practice, most companies producing consumer goods tend to launch a new product in one or two markets at a time rather than attempt to launch a product across a range of countries at a single time. Many high-tech products such as Blu-ray players reach the market in Japan before reaching the UK. Hollywood films are often seen in the United States weeks or months before they arrive in other countries.EThe advantage for firms is that it is easier to launch in one market at a time. Effort and concentration can be focused to ensure the best possible entry into the market. Moreover, for technical products especially, any initial problems become apparent in a single market and can be corrected prior to launch elsewhere. Even though this method can be time-consuming, it is usually a safer approach than a simultaneous launch. Despite this, in certain highly competitive markets such as computer chips, companies such as Intel tend to launch their new products internationally at the same time to keep the product ahead of its competitors. FThe final consideration when planning to enter a global market, rather than assuming the product will suit all markets is to take cultural differences into account. Prices have to convert to a different currency and any literature has to be translated into a different language. There are also less tangible differences. It is quite possible that common practices in one country can cause offence and have grave consequences for business success in another. In one situation in China, a western businessman caused offence to a group of local delegates because he started to fill out the paperwork immediately after shaking hands on a deal. Completing the legal documents so soon after the negotiations was regarded as undermining the host’s trust. Knowledge about such culture differences is absolutely vital.GTherefore, if a company is attempting to broaden its operations globally, it must take the time to find out about local customs and methods of business operation. Equally important is to ensure that such information is available to all necessary workers in the organization, For example, in order to attempt to avoid causing offence to passengers from abroad, British Airways aims to raise awareness of cultural differences amongst all its cabin crew.HIt can be concluded that global standardization of products to ‘fit’ all markets unlikely to be the most viable option. Marketing methods employed will depend on many factors, such as the type of products, the degree of competition, the reputation of the firm and/or the brand, the state of the economy into which the product is to be launched and how and when to launch. In short, the key to marketing success on a global level is to have sufficient information on how cultural differences are likely affect the marketing of a product and then allow the appropriate decisions to be made. In high-tech market, companies tend to introduce their new products internationally at the same time to…
check_box To push their products ahead of its competitor
Make their products cost effective
Make their products more competitive
To move their products on
The Global Product – the World as a Single MarketAFor business, the world is becoming a smaller place. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier, communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world and trade barriers are breaking down. Consequently, there are tremendous opportunities for businesses to broaden their markets into foreign countries. The challenge facing those promoting products globally is to determine whether marketing methods should be adapted to different markets based on specific cultural factors.BMany theorists argue that, with the ‘shrinking of the world, global standardization is inevitable. Over time, and as economies develop, it has been suggested that consumer buying patterns will blend into on another and national differences may disappear. Kellogg, the American breakfast cereal producer, has been very influential in challenging consumption patterns in countries outside the United States. In France, for example, breakfast cereals were almost unheard of, and market research suggested that the market was closed to companies like Kellogg. However, today, there is a demand for breakfast cereal across France. Nevertheless, the standardization of products for worldwide consumption in this way is rarely the most effective strategy as it evident from an analysis of the following key aspects of global marketing.CFirst of all, it is considered better business practice by many large, established companies to change their products from one country to the next. Take the example of Coca-Cola. The recipe for this drink is change to suit local tastes – the brand in the US is much sweeter than in the UK, whilst in India the product’s herbs and flouring are given more emphasis. In terms of the car industry, it would be too expensive for manufacturers to develop and build completely different vehicles for different markets yet a single global model is likely to appeal to no one. In response to varying needs, Nissan, for example, sells in 75 different markets, but has eight different chassis designs. The Ford Mondeo was designed with key features from different markets in mind in an effort to make its appeal as broad as possible. The best policy, as far as most multi-national companies are concerned, is to adapt their product to a particular market.DSecondly, it is important to consider whether a product should be launched simultaneously in all countries (known as a ‘sprinkler launch’) or sequentially in one market after another (‘a waterfall launch’). In practice, most companies producing consumer goods tend to launch a new product in one or two markets at a time rather than attempt to launch a product across a range of countries at a single time. Many high-tech products such as Blu-ray players reach the market in Japan before reaching the UK. Hollywood films are often seen in the United States weeks or months before they arrive in other countries.EThe advantage for firms is that it is easier to launch in one market at a time. Effort and concentration can be focused to ensure the best possible entry into the market. Moreover, for technical products especially, any initial problems become apparent in a single market and can be corrected prior to launch elsewhere. Even though this method can be time-consuming, it is usually a safer approach than a simultaneous launch. Despite this, in certain highly competitive markets such as computer chips, companies such as Intel tend to launch their new products internationally at the same time to keep the product ahead of its competitors. FThe final consideration when planning to enter a global market, rather than assuming the product will suit all markets is to take cultural differences into account. Prices have to convert to a different currency and any literature has to be translated into a different language. There are also less tangible differences. It is quite possible that common practices in one country can cause offence and have grave consequences for business success in another. In one situation in China, a western businessman caused offence to a group of local delegates because he started to fill out the paperwork immediately after shaking hands on a deal. Completing the legal documents so soon after the negotiations was regarded as undermining the host’s trust. Knowledge about such culture differences is absolutely vital.GTherefore, if a company is attempting to broaden its operations globally, it must take the time to find out about local customs and methods of business operation. Equally important is to ensure that such information is available to all necessary workers in the organization, For example, in order to attempt to avoid causing offence to passengers from abroad, British Airways aims to raise awareness of cultural differences amongst all its cabin crew.HIt can be concluded that global standardization of products to ‘fit’ all markets unlikely to be the most viable option. Marketing methods employed will depend on many factors, such as the type of products, the degree of competition, the reputation of the firm and/or the brand, the state of the economy into which the product is to be launched and how and when to launch. In short, the key to marketing success on a global level is to have sufficient information on how cultural differences are likely affect the marketing of a product and then allow the appropriate decisions to be made. Launching in one market at a time is said to be
check_box more simple for firms but time consuming
Harder for firms
More ambiguous but safer
More complicated but cost effective
The Global Product – the World as a Single MarketAFor business, the world is becoming a smaller place. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier, communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world and trade barriers are breaking down. Consequently, there are tremendous opportunities for businesses to broaden their markets into foreign countries. The challenge facing those promoting products globally is to determine whether marketing methods should be adapted to different markets based on specific cultural factors.BMany theorists argue that, with the ‘shrinking of the world, global standardization is inevitable. Over time, and as economies develop, it has been suggested that consumer buying patterns will blend into on another and national differences may disappear. Kellogg, the American breakfast cereal producer, has been very influential in challenging consumption patterns in countries outside the United States. In France, for example, breakfast cereals were almost unheard of, and market research suggested that the market was closed to companies like Kellogg. However, today, there is a demand for breakfast cereal across France. Nevertheless, the standardization of products for worldwide consumption in this way is rarely the most effective strategy as it evident from an analysis of the following key aspects of global marketing.CFirst of all, it is considered better business practice by many large, established companies to change their products from one country to the next. Take the example of Coca-Cola. The recipe for this drink is change to suit local tastes – the brand in the US is much sweeter than in the UK, whilst in India the product’s herbs and flouring are given more emphasis. In terms of the car industry, it would be too expensive for manufacturers to develop and build completely different vehicles for different markets yet a single global model is likely to appeal to no one. In response to varying needs, Nissan, for example, sells in 75 different markets, but has eight different chassis designs. The Ford Mondeo was designed with key features from different markets in mind in an effort to make its appeal as broad as possible. The best policy, as far as most multi-national companies are concerned, is to adapt their product to a particular market.DSecondly, it is important to consider whether a product should be launched simultaneously in all countries (known as a ‘sprinkler launch’) or sequentially in one market after another (‘a waterfall launch’). In practice, most companies producing consumer goods tend to launch a new product in one or two markets at a time rather than attempt to launch a product across a range of countries at a single time. Many high-tech products such as Blu-ray players reach the market in Japan before reaching the UK. Hollywood films are often seen in the United States weeks or months before they arrive in other countries.EThe advantage for firms is that it is easier to launch in one market at a time. Effort and concentration can be focused to ensure the best possible entry into the market. Moreover, for technical products especially, any initial problems become apparent in a single market and can be corrected prior to launch elsewhere. Even though this method can be time-consuming, it is usually a safer approach than a simultaneous launch. Despite this, in certain highly competitive markets such as computer chips, companies such as Intel tend to launch their new products internationally at the same time to keep the product ahead of its competitors. FThe final consideration when planning to enter a global market, rather than assuming the product will suit all markets is to take cultural differences into account. Prices have to convert to a different currency and any literature has to be translated into a different language. There are also less tangible differences. It is quite possible that common practices in one country can cause offence and have grave consequences for business success in another. In one situation in China, a western businessman caused offence to a group of local delegates because he started to fill out the paperwork immediately after shaking hands on a deal. Completing the legal documents so soon after the negotiations was regarded as undermining the host’s trust. Knowledge about such culture differences is absolutely vital.GTherefore, if a company is attempting to broaden its operations globally, it must take the time to find out about local customs and methods of business operation. Equally important is to ensure that such information is available to all necessary workers in the organization, For example, in order to attempt to avoid causing offence to passengers from abroad, British Airways aims to raise awareness of cultural differences amongst all its cabin crew.HIt can be concluded that global standardization of products to ‘fit’ all markets unlikely to be the most viable option. Marketing methods employed will depend on many factors, such as the type of products, the degree of competition, the reputation of the firm and/or the brand, the state of the economy into which the product is to be launched and how and when to launch. In short, the key to marketing success on a global level is to have sufficient information on how cultural differences are likely affect the marketing of a product and then allow the appropriate decisions to be made. What factor is the most important when the world is shrunk according to the theorists?
Development of economies
Global standardization
Habit of consumption
National differences
The Global Product – the World as a Single MarketAFor business, the world is becoming a smaller place. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier, communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world and trade barriers are breaking down. Consequently, there are tremendous opportunities for businesses to broaden their markets into foreign countries. The challenge facing those promoting products globally is to determine whether marketing methods should be adapted to different markets based on specific cultural factors.BMany theorists argue that, with the ‘shrinking of the world, global standardization is inevitable. Over time, and as economies develop, it has been suggested that consumer buying patterns will blend into on another and national differences may disappear. Kellogg, the American breakfast cereal producer, has been very influential in challenging consumption patterns in countries outside the United States. In France, for example, breakfast cereals were almost unheard of, and market research suggested that the market was closed to companies like Kellogg. However, today, there is a demand for breakfast cereal across France. Nevertheless, the standardization of products for worldwide consumption in this way is rarely the most effective strategy as it evident from an analysis of the following key aspects of global marketing.CFirst of all, it is considered better business practice by many large, established companies to change their products from one country to the next. Take the example of Coca-Cola. The recipe for this drink is change to suit local tastes – the brand in the US is much sweeter than in the UK, whilst in India the product’s herbs and flouring are given more emphasis. In terms of the car industry, it would be too expensive for manufacturers to develop and build completely different vehicles for different markets yet a single global model is likely to appeal to no one. In response to varying needs, Nissan, for example, sells in 75 different markets, but has eight different chassis designs. The Ford Mondeo was designed with key features from different markets in mind in an effort to make its appeal as broad as possible. The best policy, as far as most multi-national companies are concerned, is to adapt their product to a particular market.DSecondly, it is important to consider whether a product should be launched simultaneously in all countries (known as a ‘sprinkler launch’) or sequentially in one market after another (‘a waterfall launch’). In practice, most companies producing consumer goods tend to launch a new product in one or two markets at a time rather than attempt to launch a product across a range of countries at a single time. Many high-tech products such as Blu-ray players reach the market in Japan before reaching the UK. Hollywood films are often seen in the United States weeks or months before they arrive in other countries.EThe advantage for firms is that it is easier to launch in one market at a time. Effort and concentration can be focused to ensure the best possible entry into the market. Moreover, for technical products especially, any initial problems become apparent in a single market and can be corrected prior to launch elsewhere. Even though this method can be time-consuming, it is usually a safer approach than a simultaneous launch. Despite this, in certain highly competitive markets such as computer chips, companies such as Intel tend to launch their new products internationally at the same time to keep the product ahead of its competitors. FThe final consideration when planning to enter a global market, rather than assuming the product will suit all markets is to take cultural differences into account. Prices have to convert to a different currency and any literature has to be translated into a different language. There are also less tangible differences. It is quite possible that common practices in one country can cause offence and have grave consequences for business success in another. In one situation in China, a western businessman caused offence to a group of local delegates because he started to fill out the paperwork immediately after shaking hands on a deal. Completing the legal documents so soon after the negotiations was regarded as undermining the host’s trust. Knowledge about such culture differences is absolutely vital.GTherefore, if a company is attempting to broaden its operations globally, it must take the time to find out about local customs and methods of business operation. Equally important is to ensure that such information is available to all necessary workers in the organization, For example, in order to attempt to avoid causing offence to passengers from abroad, British Airways aims to raise awareness of cultural differences amongst all its cabin crew.HIt can be concluded that global standardization of products to ‘fit’ all markets unlikely to be the most viable option. Marketing methods employed will depend on many factors, such as the type of products, the degree of competition, the reputation of the firm and/or the brand, the state of the economy into which the product is to be launched and how and when to launch. In short, the key to marketing success on a global level is to have sufficient information on how cultural differences are likely affect the marketing of a product and then allow the appropriate decisions to be made. What is called “sprinkler launch” is the strategy where…
A product should be launched in all countries at a single time
A product should be launched in all countries at different stages
A product should be launched in all countries at the same time
A product should be launched in one or two countries at a time
The Global Product – the World as a Single MarketAFor business, the world is becoming a smaller place. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier, communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world and trade barriers are breaking down. Consequently, there are tremendous opportunities for businesses to broaden their markets into foreign countries. The challenge facing those promoting products globally is to determine whether marketing methods should be adapted to different markets based on specific cultural factors.BMany theorists argue that, with the ‘shrinking of the world, global standardization is inevitable. Over time, and as economies develop, it has been suggested that consumer buying patterns will blend into on another and national differences may disappear. Kellogg, the American breakfast cereal producer, has been very influential in challenging consumption patterns in countries outside the United States. In France, for example, breakfast cereals were almost unheard of, and market research suggested that the market was closed to companies like Kellogg. However, today, there is a demand for breakfast cereal across France. Nevertheless, the standardization of products for worldwide consumption in this way is rarely the most effective strategy as it evident from an analysis of the following key aspects of global marketing.CFirst of all, it is considered better business practice by many large, established companies to change their products from one country to the next. Take the example of Coca-Cola. The recipe for this drink is change to suit local tastes – the brand in the US is much sweeter than in the UK, whilst in India the product’s herbs and flouring are given more emphasis. In terms of the car industry, it would be too expensive for manufacturers to develop and build completely different vehicles for different markets yet a single global model is likely to appeal to no one. In response to varying needs, Nissan, for example, sells in 75 different markets, but has eight different chassis designs. The Ford Mondeo was designed with key features from different markets in mind in an effort to make its appeal as broad as possible. The best policy, as far as most multi-national companies are concerned, is to adapt their product to a particular market.DSecondly, it is important to consider whether a product should be launched simultaneously in all countries (known as a ‘sprinkler launch’) or sequentially in one market after another (‘a waterfall launch’). In practice, most companies producing consumer goods tend to launch a new product in one or two markets at a time rather than attempt to launch a product across a range of countries at a single time. Many high-tech products such as Blu-ray players reach the market in Japan before reaching the UK. Hollywood films are often seen in the United States weeks or months before they arrive in other countries.EThe advantage for firms is that it is easier to launch in one market at a time. Effort and concentration can be focused to ensure the best possible entry into the market. Moreover, for technical products especially, any initial problems become apparent in a single market and can be corrected prior to launch elsewhere. Even though this method can be time-consuming, it is usually a safer approach than a simultaneous launch. Despite this, in certain highly competitive markets such as computer chips, companies such as Intel tend to launch their new products internationally at the same time to keep the product ahead of its competitors. FThe final consideration when planning to enter a global market, rather than assuming the product will suit all markets is to take cultural differences into account. Prices have to convert to a different currency and any literature has to be translated into a different language. There are also less tangible differences. It is quite possible that common practices in one country can cause offence and have grave consequences for business success in another. In one situation in China, a western businessman caused offence to a group of local delegates because he started to fill out the paperwork immediately after shaking hands on a deal. Completing the legal documents so soon after the negotiations was regarded as undermining the host’s trust. Knowledge about such culture differences is absolutely vital.GTherefore, if a company is attempting to broaden its operations globally, it must take the time to find out about local customs and methods of business operation. Equally important is to ensure that such information is available to all necessary workers in the organization, For example, in order to attempt to avoid causing offence to passengers from abroad, British Airways aims to raise awareness of cultural differences amongst all its cabin crew.HIt can be concluded that global standardization of products to ‘fit’ all markets unlikely to be the most viable option. Marketing methods employed will depend on many factors, such as the type of products, the degree of competition, the reputation of the firm and/or the brand, the state of the economy into which the product is to be launched and how and when to launch. In short, the key to marketing success on a global level is to have sufficient information on how cultural differences are likely affect the marketing of a product and then allow the appropriate decisions to be made. What is called “water fall launch” is the strategy where…
A product should be launched in all countries at a single time
A product should be launched in one country after another
A product should be launched in one or two countries at a time
A product should be launched in one or two countries at a time
The Global Product – the World as a Single MarketAFor business, the world is becoming a smaller place. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier, communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world and trade barriers are breaking down. Consequently, there are tremendous opportunities for businesses to broaden their markets into foreign countries. The challenge facing those promoting products globally is to determine whether marketing methods should be adapted to different markets based on specific cultural factors.BMany theorists argue that, with the ‘shrinking of the world, global standardization is inevitable. Over time, and as economies develop, it has been suggested that consumer buying patterns will blend into on another and national differences may disappear. Kellogg, the American breakfast cereal producer, has been very influential in challenging consumption patterns in countries outside the United States. In France, for example, breakfast cereals were almost unheard of, and market research suggested that the market was closed to companies like Kellogg. However, today, there is a demand for breakfast cereal across France. Nevertheless, the standardization of products for worldwide consumption in this way is rarely the most effective strategy as it evident from an analysis of the following key aspects of global marketing.CFirst of all, it is considered better business practice by many large, established companies to change their products from one country to the next. Take the example of Coca-Cola. The recipe for this drink is change to suit local tastes – the brand in the US is much sweeter than in the UK, whilst in India the product’s herbs and flouring are given more emphasis. In terms of the car industry, it would be too expensive for manufacturers to develop and build completely different vehicles for different markets yet a single global model is likely to appeal to no one. In response to varying needs, Nissan, for example, sells in 75 different markets, but has eight different chassis designs. The Ford Mondeo was designed with key features from different markets in mind in an effort to make its appeal as broad as possible. The best policy, as far as most multi-national companies are concerned, is to adapt their product to a particular market.DSecondly, it is important to consider whether a product should be launched simultaneously in all countries (known as a ‘sprinkler launch’) or sequentially in one market after another (‘a waterfall launch’). In practice, most companies producing consumer goods tend to launch a new product in one or two markets at a time rather than attempt to launch a product across a range of countries at a single time. Many high-tech products such as Blu-ray players reach the market in Japan before reaching the UK. Hollywood films are often seen in the United States weeks or months before they arrive in other countries.EThe advantage for firms is that it is easier to launch in one market at a time. Effort and concentration can be focused to ensure the best possible entry into the market. Moreover, for technical products especially, any initial problems become apparent in a single market and can be corrected prior to launch elsewhere. Even though this method can be time-consuming, it is usually a safer approach than a simultaneous launch. Despite this, in certain highly competitive markets such as computer chips, companies such as Intel tend to launch their new products internationally at the same time to keep the product ahead of its competitors. FThe final consideration when planning to enter a global market, rather than assuming the product will suit all markets is to take cultural differences into account. Prices have to convert to a different currency and any literature has to be translated into a different language. There are also less tangible differences. It is quite possible that common practices in one country can cause offence and have grave consequences for business success in another. In one situation in China, a western businessman caused offence to a group of local delegates because he started to fill out the paperwork immediately after shaking hands on a deal. Completing the legal documents so soon after the negotiations was regarded as undermining the host’s trust. Knowledge about such culture differences is absolutely vital.GTherefore, if a company is attempting to broaden its operations globally, it must take the time to find out about local customs and methods of business operation. Equally important is to ensure that such information is available to all necessary workers in the organization, For example, in order to attempt to avoid causing offence to passengers from abroad, British Airways aims to raise awareness of cultural differences amongst all its cabin crew.HIt can be concluded that global standardization of products to ‘fit’ all markets unlikely to be the most viable option. Marketing methods employed will depend on many factors, such as the type of products, the degree of competition, the reputation of the firm and/or the brand, the state of the economy into which the product is to be launched and how and when to launch. In short, the key to marketing success on a global level is to have sufficient information on how cultural differences are likely affect the marketing of a product and then allow the appropriate decisions to be made. Which factors decide the success of businesses when promoting their products globally?
Cultural factors
Different markets
Different product
Methods of marketing
The Global Product – the World as a Single MarketAFor business, the world is becoming a smaller place. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier, communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world and trade barriers are breaking down. Consequently, there are tremendous opportunities for businesses to broaden their markets into foreign countries. The challenge facing those promoting products globally is to determine whether marketing methods should be adapted to different markets based on specific cultural factors.BMany theorists argue that, with the ‘shrinking of the world, global standardization is inevitable. Over time, and as economies develop, it has been suggested that consumer buying patterns will blend into on another and national differences may disappear. Kellogg, the American breakfast cereal producer, has been very influential in challenging consumption patterns in countries outside the United States. In France, for example, breakfast cereals were almost unheard of, and market research suggested that the market was closed to companies like Kellogg. However, today, there is a demand for breakfast cereal across France. Nevertheless, the standardization of products for worldwide consumption in this way is rarely the most effective strategy as it evident from an analysis of the following key aspects of global marketing.CFirst of all, it is considered better business practice by many large, established companies to change their products from one country to the next. Take the example of Coca-Cola. The recipe for this drink is change to suit local tastes – the brand in the US is much sweeter than in the UK, whilst in India the product’s herbs and flouring are given more emphasis. In terms of the car industry, it would be too expensive for manufacturers to develop and build completely different vehicles for different markets yet a single global model is likely to appeal to no one. In response to varying needs, Nissan, for example, sells in 75 different markets, but has eight different chassis designs. The Ford Mondeo was designed with key features from different markets in mind in an effort to make its appeal as broad as possible. The best policy, as far as most multi-national companies are concerned, is to adapt their product to a particular market.DSecondly, it is important to consider whether a product should be launched simultaneously in all countries (known as a ‘sprinkler launch’) or sequentially in one market after another (‘a waterfall launch’). In practice, most companies producing consumer goods tend to launch a new product in one or two markets at a time rather than attempt to launch a product across a range of countries at a single time. Many high-tech products such as Blu-ray players reach the market in Japan before reaching the UK. Hollywood films are often seen in the United States weeks or months before they arrive in other countries.EThe advantage for firms is that it is easier to launch in one market at a time. Effort and concentration can be focused to ensure the best possible entry into the market. Moreover, for technical products especially, any initial problems become apparent in a single market and can be corrected prior to launch elsewhere. Even though this method can be time-consuming, it is usually a safer approach than a simultaneous launch. Despite this, in certain highly competitive markets such as computer chips, companies such as Intel tend to launch their new products internationally at the same time to keep the product ahead of its competitors. FThe final consideration when planning to enter a global market, rather than assuming the product will suit all markets is to take cultural differences into account. Prices have to convert to a different currency and any literature has to be translated into a different language. There are also less tangible differences. It is quite possible that common practices in one country can cause offence and have grave consequences for business success in another. In one situation in China, a western businessman caused offence to a group of local delegates because he started to fill out the paperwork immediately after shaking hands on a deal. Completing the legal documents so soon after the negotiations was regarded as undermining the host’s trust. Knowledge about such culture differences is absolutely vital.GTherefore, if a company is attempting to broaden its operations globally, it must take the time to find out about local customs and methods of business operation. Equally important is to ensure that such information is available to all necessary workers in the organization, For example, in order to attempt to avoid causing offence to passengers from abroad, British Airways aims to raise awareness of cultural differences amongst all its cabin crew.HIt can be concluded that global standardization of products to ‘fit’ all markets unlikely to be the most viable option. Marketing methods employed will depend on many factors, such as the type of products, the degree of competition, the reputation of the firm and/or the brand, the state of the economy into which the product is to be launched and how and when to launch. In short, the key to marketing success on a global level is to have sufficient information on how cultural differences are likely affect the marketing of a product and then allow the appropriate decisions to be made. Why is globalization said to be a good thing for many developing countries?
Because they have the chance to develop their country economically
Because they may export different goods
Because they may have access to different markets
Both A,B and C
The Harder Hard SellIt was Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer, who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted, but didn’t know which half. The real effects of advertising have become more measurable, exposing another, potentially more horrible, truth for industry: in more cases, it can be a lot more than half of the budget that is going down the drain.The advertising industry is passing through one of the most disorienting periods in its history. This is due to a combination of long-term changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the arrival of new technologies, notably the internet. With better-informed consumers, the result is that some of the traditional methods of advertising and marketing simply no longer work.The media are the messageBut spending on advertising is up again and is expected to grow this year by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion. How will the money be spent? There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail and include customer promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf space), telemarketing, exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. These have become such an inseparable part of the industry that big agencies are now willing to provide most of them.As ever, the debate in the industry centers on the best way to achieve results. It is more cost-effective, for instance, to use a public relations agency to invite a journalist out to lunch and persuade him to write about a product than to pay for a display ad in that journalist’s newspaper? Should you launch a new car with glossy magazine ads, or – as some car makers now do – simply park demonstration models in shopping malls and motorway service stations? And is it better to buy a series of ads on a specialist cable TV channel or splurge $2.2m on a single 30-second commercial during this year’s Super Bowl?Net SalesSuch decisions are ever harder to make. For a start, people are spending less time reading newspapers and magazines, but are going to the cinema more, listening to more radios and turning in ever-increasing numbers to a new medium, the Internet (see chart 1). No one knows just how important the Internet will eventually be as an advertising medium. Some advertisers think it will be a highly cost-effective way of reaching certain group of consumers. But not everyone uses Internet and nor is it seen as being as being particularly good at building brands. So far, the Internet accounts for only a tiny slice of the overall advertising pie (see chart 2) although its share has begun to grow rapidly.Despite all of these new developments, many in the advertising business remain confident. Rupert Howell, chairman of the London arm of McCann Erickson, points out that TV never killed radio, which in turn never killed radio, which in turn never killed newspapers. They did pose huge creative challenges, but that’s OK, he maintains: “The advertising industry is relentlessly inventive; that’s what we do.”According to the passage the real effects of advertising expose another, potentially …
Brighter
More hopeful
More horrible
More valuable
The Harder Hard SellIt was Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer, who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted, but didn’t know which half. The real effects of advertising have become more measurable, exposing another, potentially more horrible, truth for industry: in more cases, it can be a lot more than half of the budget that is going down the drain.The advertising industry is passing through one of the most disorienting periods in its history. This is due to a combination of long-term changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the arrival of new technologies, notably the internet. With better-informed consumers, the result is that some of the traditional methods of advertising and marketing simply no longer work.The media are the messageBut spending on advertising is up again and is expected to grow this year by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion. How will the money be spent? There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail and include customer promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf space), telemarketing, exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. These have become such an inseparable part of the industry that big agencies are now willing to provide most of them.As ever, the debate in the industry centers on the best way to achieve results. It is more cost-effective, for instance, to use a public relations agency to invite a journalist out to lunch and persuade him to write about a product than to pay for a display ad in that journalist’s newspaper? Should you launch a new car with glossy magazine ads, or – as some car makers now do – simply park demonstration models in shopping malls and motorway service stations? And is it better to buy a series of ads on a specialist cable TV channel or splurge $2.2m on a single 30-second commercial during this year’s Super Bowl?Net SalesSuch decisions are ever harder to make. For a start, people are spending less time reading newspapers and magazines, but are going to the cinema more, listening to more radios and turning in ever-increasing numbers to a new medium, the Internet (see chart 1). No one knows just how important the Internet will eventually be as an advertising medium. Some advertisers think it will be a highly cost-effective way of reaching certain group of consumers. But not everyone uses Internet and nor is it seen as being as being particularly good at building brands. So far, the Internet accounts for only a tiny slice of the overall advertising pie (see chart 2) although its share has begun to grow rapidly.Despite all of these new developments, many in the advertising business remain confident. Rupert Howell, chairman of the London arm of McCann Erickson, points out that TV never killed radio, which in turn never killed radio, which in turn never killed newspapers. They did pose huge creative challenges, but that’s OK, he maintains: “The advertising industry is relentlessly inventive; that’s what we do.”Advertising on internet has begun to…
Decrease slightly in recent year
grow rapidly in recent years
Kill radios in the advertising field
Replace traditional methods of advertising in recent year
The Harder Hard SellIt was Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer, who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted, but didn’t know which half. The real effects of advertising have become more measurable, exposing another, potentially more horrible, truth for industry: in more cases, it can be a lot more than half of the budget that is going down the drain.The advertising industry is passing through one of the most disorienting periods in its history. This is due to a combination of long-term changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the arrival of new technologies, notably the internet. With better-informed consumers, the result is that some of the traditional methods of advertising and marketing simply no longer work.The media are the messageBut spending on advertising is up again and is expected to grow this year by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion. How will the money be spent? There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail and include customer promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf space), telemarketing, exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. These have become such an inseparable part of the industry that big agencies are now willing to provide most of them.As ever, the debate in the industry centers on the best way to achieve results. It is more cost-effective, for instance, to use a public relations agency to invite a journalist out to lunch and persuade him to write about a product than to pay for a display ad in that journalist’s newspaper? Should you launch a new car with glossy magazine ads, or – as some car makers now do – simply park demonstration models in shopping malls and motorway service stations? And is it better to buy a series of ads on a specialist cable TV channel or splurge $2.2m on a single 30-second commercial during this year’s Super Bowl?Net SalesSuch decisions are ever harder to make. For a start, people are spending less time reading newspapers and magazines, but are going to the cinema more, listening to more radios and turning in ever-increasing numbers to a new medium, the Internet (see chart 1). No one knows just how important the Internet will eventually be as an advertising medium. Some advertisers think it will be a highly cost-effective way of reaching certain group of consumers. But not everyone uses Internet and nor is it seen as being as being particularly good at building brands. So far, the Internet accounts for only a tiny slice of the overall advertising pie (see chart 2) although its share has begun to grow rapidly.Despite all of these new developments, many in the advertising business remain confident. Rupert Howell, chairman of the London arm of McCann Erickson, points out that TV never killed radio, which in turn never killed radio, which in turn never killed newspapers. They did pose huge creative challenges, but that’s OK, he maintains: “The advertising industry is relentlessly inventive; that’s what we do.”Inviting a journalist out to lunch and persuading him to write about a product is said to be
More cost effective approach
More expensive way
More popular way
Well known method
The Harder Hard SellIt was Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer, who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted, but didn’t know which half. The real effects of advertising have become more measurable, exposing another, potentially more horrible, truth for industry: in more cases, it can be a lot more than half of the budget that is going down the drain.The advertising industry is passing through one of the most disorienting periods in its history. This is due to a combination of long-term changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the arrival of new technologies, notably the internet. With better-informed consumers, the result is that some of the traditional methods of advertising and marketing simply no longer work.The media are the messageBut spending on advertising is up again and is expected to grow this year by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion. How will the money be spent? There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail and include customer promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf space), telemarketing, exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. These have become such an inseparable part of the industry that big agencies are now willing to provide most of them.As ever, the debate in the industry centers on the best way to achieve results. It is more cost-effective, for instance, to use a public relations agency to invite a journalist out to lunch and persuade him to write about a product than to pay for a display ad in that journalist’s newspaper? Should you launch a new car with glossy magazine ads, or – as some car makers now do – simply park demonstration models in shopping malls and motorway service stations? And is it better to buy a series of ads on a specialist cable TV channel or splurge $2.2m on a single 30-second commercial during this year’s Super Bowl?Net SalesSuch decisions are ever harder to make. For a start, people are spending less time reading newspapers and magazines, but are going to the cinema more, listening to more radios and turning in ever-increasing numbers to a new medium, the Internet (see chart 1). No one knows just how important the Internet will eventually be as an advertising medium. Some advertisers think it will be a highly cost-effective way of reaching certain group of consumers. But not everyone uses Internet and nor is it seen as being as being particularly good at building brands. So far, the Internet accounts for only a tiny slice of the overall advertising pie (see chart 2) although its share has begun to grow rapidly.Despite all of these new developments, many in the advertising business remain confident. Rupert Howell, chairman of the London arm of McCann Erickson, points out that TV never killed radio, which in turn never killed radio, which in turn never killed newspapers. They did pose huge creative challenges, but that’s OK, he maintains: “The advertising industry is relentlessly inventive; that’s what we do.”What are alternatives to straightforward advertising?
It should be sponsoring events
They are ranged from public relations to direct mail
They may be Exhibitions and direct mail
They may be telemarketing and email
The Harder Hard SellIt was Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer, who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted, but didn’t know which half. The real effects of advertising have become more measurable, exposing another, potentially more horrible, truth for industry: in more cases, it can be a lot more than half of the budget that is going down the drain.The advertising industry is passing through one of the most disorienting periods in its history. This is due to a combination of long-term changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the arrival of new technologies, notably the internet. With better-informed consumers, the result is that some of the traditional methods of advertising and marketing simply no longer work.The media are the messageBut spending on advertising is up again and is expected to grow this year by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion. How will the money be spent? There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail and include customer promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf space), telemarketing, exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. These have become such an inseparable part of the industry that big agencies are now willing to provide most of them.As ever, the debate in the industry centers on the best way to achieve results. It is more cost-effective, for instance, to use a public relations agency to invite a journalist out to lunch and persuade him to write about a product than to pay for a display ad in that journalist’s newspaper? Should you launch a new car with glossy magazine ads, or – as some car makers now do – simply park demonstration models in shopping malls and motorway service stations? And is it better to buy a series of ads on a specialist cable TV channel or splurge $2.2m on a single 30-second commercial during this year’s Super Bowl?Net SalesSuch decisions are ever harder to make. For a start, people are spending less time reading newspapers and magazines, but are going to the cinema more, listening to more radios and turning in ever-increasing numbers to a new medium, the Internet (see chart 1). No one knows just how important the Internet will eventually be as an advertising medium. Some advertisers think it will be a highly cost-effective way of reaching certain group of consumers. But not everyone uses Internet and nor is it seen as being as being particularly good at building brands. So far, the Internet accounts for only a tiny slice of the overall advertising pie (see chart 2) although its share has begun to grow rapidly.Despite all of these new developments, many in the advertising business remain confident. Rupert Howell, chairman of the London arm of McCann Erickson, points out that TV never killed radio, which in turn never killed radio, which in turn never killed newspapers. They did pose huge creative challenges, but that’s OK, he maintains: “The advertising industry is relentlessly inventive; that’s what we do.”What are the key to the confidence of many advertising business?
Challenges
Creativity
Difficulty
Hard sell
The Harder Hard SellIt was Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer, who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted, but didn’t know which half. The real effects of advertising have become more measurable, exposing another, potentially more horrible, truth for industry: in more cases, it can be a lot more than half of the budget that is going down the drain.The advertising industry is passing through one of the most disorienting periods in its history. This is due to a combination of long-term changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the arrival of new technologies, notably the internet. With better-informed consumers, the result is that some of the traditional methods of advertising and marketing simply no longer work.The media are the messageBut spending on advertising is up again and is expected to grow this year by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion. How will the money be spent? There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail and include customer promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf space), telemarketing, exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. These have become such an inseparable part of the industry that big agencies are now willing to provide most of them.As ever, the debate in the industry centers on the best way to achieve results. It is more cost-effective, for instance, to use a public relations agency to invite a journalist out to lunch and persuade him to write about a product than to pay for a display ad in that journalist’s newspaper? Should you launch a new car with glossy magazine ads, or – as some car makers now do – simply park demonstration models in shopping malls and motorway service stations? And is it better to buy a series of ads on a specialist cable TV channel or splurge $2.2m on a single 30-second commercial during this year’s Super Bowl?Net SalesSuch decisions are ever harder to make. For a start, people are spending less time reading newspapers and magazines, but are going to the cinema more, listening to more radios and turning in ever-increasing numbers to a new medium, the Internet (see chart 1). No one knows just how important the Internet will eventually be as an advertising medium. Some advertisers think it will be a highly cost-effective way of reaching certain group of consumers. But not everyone uses Internet and nor is it seen as being as being particularly good at building brands. So far, the Internet accounts for only a tiny slice of the overall advertising pie (see chart 2) although its share has begun to grow rapidly.Despite all of these new developments, many in the advertising business remain confident. Rupert Howell, chairman of the London arm of McCann Erickson, points out that TV never killed radio, which in turn never killed radio, which in turn never killed newspapers. They did pose huge creative challenges, but that’s OK, he maintains: “The advertising industry is relentlessly inventive; that’s what we do.”What are the main causes of the most disorienting periods in the history of advertising industry?
Appearance of many other Marketing methods
Better informed consumers due to a lot of other means of communication
Disappearance of traditional method of advertising such as radio, newspaper…
Long term-changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the development of new technologies
The Harder Hard SellIt was Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer, who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted, but didn’t know which half. The real effects of advertising have become more measurable, exposing another, potentially more horrible, truth for industry: in more cases, it can be a lot more than half of the budget that is going down the drain.The advertising industry is passing through one of the most disorienting periods in its history. This is due to a combination of long-term changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the arrival of new technologies, notably the internet. With better-informed consumers, the result is that some of the traditional methods of advertising and marketing simply no longer work.The media are the messageBut spending on advertising is up again and is expected to grow this year by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion. How will the money be spent? There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail and include customer promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf space), telemarketing, exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. These have become such an inseparable part of the industry that big agencies are now willing to provide most of them.As ever, the debate in the industry centers on the best way to achieve results. It is more cost-effective, for instance, to use a public relations agency to invite a journalist out to lunch and persuade him to write about a product than to pay for a display ad in that journalist’s newspaper? Should you launch a new car with glossy magazine ads, or – as some car makers now do – simply park demonstration models in shopping malls and motorway service stations? And is it better to buy a series of ads on a specialist cable TV channel or splurge $2.2m on a single 30-second commercial during this year’s Super Bowl?Net SalesSuch decisions are ever harder to make. For a start, people are spending less time reading newspapers and magazines, but are going to the cinema more, listening to more radios and turning in ever-increasing numbers to a new medium, the Internet (see chart 1). No one knows just how important the Internet will eventually be as an advertising medium. Some advertisers think it will be a highly cost-effective way of reaching certain group of consumers. But not everyone uses Internet and nor is it seen as being as being particularly good at building brands. So far, the Internet accounts for only a tiny slice of the overall advertising pie (see chart 2) although its share has begun to grow rapidly.Despite all of these new developments, many in the advertising business remain confident. Rupert Howell, chairman of the London arm of McCann Erickson, points out that TV never killed radio, which in turn never killed radio, which in turn never killed newspapers. They did pose huge creative challenges, but that’s OK, he maintains: “The advertising industry is relentlessly inventive; that’s what we do.”What is expected to grow by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion?
Spending on advertising this year
Spending on customers promotions in many year
Spending on mail and internet this year
Spending on public relations in the coming year
The Harder Hard SellIt was Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer, who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted, but didn’t know which half. The real effects of advertising have become more measurable, exposing another, potentially more horrible, truth for industry: in more cases, it can be a lot more than half of the budget that is going down the drain.The advertising industry is passing through one of the most disorienting periods in its history. This is due to a combination of long-term changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the arrival of new technologies, notably the internet. With better-informed consumers, the result is that some of the traditional methods of advertising and marketing simply no longer work.The media are the messageBut spending on advertising is up again and is expected to grow this year by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion. How will the money be spent? There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail and include customer promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf space), telemarketing, exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. These have become such an inseparable part of the industry that big agencies are now willing to provide most of them.As ever, the debate in the industry centers on the best way to achieve results. It is more cost-effective, for instance, to use a public relations agency to invite a journalist out to lunch and persuade him to write about a product than to pay for a display ad in that journalist’s newspaper? Should you launch a new car with glossy magazine ads, or – as some car makers now do – simply park demonstration models in shopping malls and motorway service stations? And is it better to buy a series of ads on a specialist cable TV channel or splurge $2.2m on a single 30-second commercial during this year’s Super Bowl?Net SalesSuch decisions are ever harder to make. For a start, people are spending less time reading newspapers and magazines, but are going to the cinema more, listening to more radios and turning in ever-increasing numbers to a new medium, the Internet (see chart 1). No one knows just how important the Internet will eventually be as an advertising medium. Some advertisers think it will be a highly cost-effective way of reaching certain group of consumers. But not everyone uses Internet and nor is it seen as being as being particularly good at building brands. So far, the Internet accounts for only a tiny slice of the overall advertising pie (see chart 2) although its share has begun to grow rapidly.Despite all of these new developments, many in the advertising business remain confident. Rupert Howell, chairman of the London arm of McCann Erickson, points out that TV never killed radio, which in turn never killed radio, which in turn never killed newspapers. They did pose huge creative challenges, but that’s OK, he maintains: “The advertising industry is relentlessly inventive; that’s what we do.”What kinds of method of advertising are big agencies now willing to provide?
Advertising on magazines
Advertising on newspapers
Advertising on radios
alternatives to straightforward advertising
The Harder Hard SellIt was Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer, who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted, but didn’t know which half. The real effects of advertising have become more measurable, exposing another, potentially more horrible, truth for industry: in more cases, it can be a lot more than half of the budget that is going down the drain.The advertising industry is passing through one of the most disorienting periods in its history. This is due to a combination of long-term changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the arrival of new technologies, notably the internet. With better-informed consumers, the result is that some of the traditional methods of advertising and marketing simply no longer work.The media are the messageBut spending on advertising is up again and is expected to grow this year by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion. How will the money be spent? There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail and include customer promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf space), telemarketing, exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. These have become such an inseparable part of the industry that big agencies are now willing to provide most of them.As ever, the debate in the industry centers on the best way to achieve results. It is more cost-effective, for instance, to use a public relations agency to invite a journalist out to lunch and persuade him to write about a product than to pay for a display ad in that journalist’s newspaper? Should you launch a new car with glossy magazine ads, or – as some car makers now do – simply park demonstration models in shopping malls and motorway service stations? And is it better to buy a series of ads on a specialist cable TV channel or splurge $2.2m on a single 30-second commercial during this year’s Super Bowl?Net SalesSuch decisions are ever harder to make. For a start, people are spending less time reading newspapers and magazines, but are going to the cinema more, listening to more radios and turning in ever-increasing numbers to a new medium, the Internet (see chart 1). No one knows just how important the Internet will eventually be as an advertising medium. Some advertisers think it will be a highly cost-effective way of reaching certain group of consumers. But not everyone uses Internet and nor is it seen as being as being particularly good at building brands. So far, the Internet accounts for only a tiny slice of the overall advertising pie (see chart 2) although its share has begun to grow rapidly.Despite all of these new developments, many in the advertising business remain confident. Rupert Howell, chairman of the London arm of McCann Erickson, points out that TV never killed radio, which in turn never killed radio, which in turn never killed newspapers. They did pose huge creative challenges, but that’s OK, he maintains: “The advertising industry is relentlessly inventive; that’s what we do.”What message do you think this passage send you?
The advantages of traditional methods of advertising
The big challenges on advertising industry
The development of advertising
The disadvantages of internet advertising
The Harder Hard SellIt was Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer, who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted, but didn’t know which half. The real effects of advertising have become more measurable, exposing another, potentially more horrible, truth for industry: in more cases, it can be a lot more than half of the budget that is going down the drain.The advertising industry is passing through one of the most disorienting periods in its history. This is due to a combination of long-term changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the arrival of new technologies, notably the internet. With better-informed consumers, the result is that some of the traditional methods of advertising and marketing simply no longer work.The media are the messageBut spending on advertising is up again and is expected to grow this year by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion. How will the money be spent? There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail and include customer promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf space), telemarketing, exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. These have become such an inseparable part of the industry that big agencies are now willing to provide most of them.As ever, the debate in the industry centers on the best way to achieve results. It is more cost-effective, for instance, to use a public relations agency to invite a journalist out to lunch and persuade him to write about a product than to pay for a display ad in that journalist’s newspaper? Should you launch a new car with glossy magazine ads, or – as some car makers now do – simply park demonstration models in shopping malls and motorway service stations? And is it better to buy a series of ads on a specialist cable TV channel or splurge $2.2m on a single 30-second commercial during this year’s Super Bowl?Net SalesSuch decisions are ever harder to make. For a start, people are spending less time reading newspapers and magazines, but are going to the cinema more, listening to more radios and turning in ever-increasing numbers to a new medium, the Internet (see chart 1). No one knows just how important the Internet will eventually be as an advertising medium. Some advertisers think it will be a highly cost-effective way of reaching certain group of consumers. But not everyone uses Internet and nor is it seen as being as being particularly good at building brands. So far, the Internet accounts for only a tiny slice of the overall advertising pie (see chart 2) although its share has begun to grow rapidly.Despite all of these new developments, many in the advertising business remain confident. Rupert Howell, chairman of the London arm of McCann Erickson, points out that TV never killed radio, which in turn never killed radio, which in turn never killed newspapers. They did pose huge creative challenges, but that’s OK, he maintains: “The advertising industry is relentlessly inventive; that’s what we do.”Who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted?
A British man
Lord Leverhulme
Lord Leverhulme, an inventor of soap in Great Britain
Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer

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