..................................... related to parts of human body, clothing or instruments people use. However, the meaning of the converted words may vary from the meaning of the non-converted words. For example, a skirt denotes a woman’s garment that hangs from the waist
Conversion employ a vast number of words
Conversion employing a vast number of words
Conversion employs a vast number of words
Conversion is employed a vast number of words
............................................. lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of specialized dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that are devoted to a (relatively restricted) set of linguistic and factual elements of one or more specialist subject fields, e.g. .
Special
Specialization
Specialized
Specializing
................................................. ..may form noun plurals (the Germans); genitive case (headmaster’s); 3rd person singular (speaks); past tense (worked); contracted forms (we´re); comparatives and superlatives (bigger; the biggest) or participles (speaking).
Inflection suffixes
Inflectional suffixes
Inflectionally suffixes
Inflective suffixes
...................................................., some prefixes express the difference between a transitive and an intransitive verb: stay v and outstay (smb) v t. With a few exceptions prefixes modify the stem for time (pre-t post-), place (in-, ad-), negation (un-, dis-) and remain semantically rather independent of the stem
Precede a verb stem
Precedence a verb stem
Preceding a verb stem
To precede a verb stem
..........................................exist in language and are reproduced in speech as ready-made units, whereas free word groups or combinations are created in speech every time we need them.
check_box Set expressions
Set phrases
Set sayings
Set terms
................................distinguishes between the three closely connected components with meaning, that is 1) the sound-form of the linguistic sign, 2) the concept underlying this sound form and 3) the referent, i.e. the part or aspect of reality to which the linguistic sign refers
check_box Referential Approach
Referent Approach
Referred Approach
Referring Approach
A form is said to be free if it may stand alone without changing its meaning; if not, it is a bound form, so called because ..............................
It is always bound by something else.
It is always bound for something else.
It is always bound to something else.
It is always bound with something else.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that refers to something as being the same as another thing for rhetorical effect. It may provide ................................... ................hidden similarities between two ideas. Where a compares two items, a metaphor directly equates them, and does not use "like" or "as" as does a simile.
Clarifying or identify
Clarity or identification
Clarity or identify
Clarity or identifying
A morpheme is also an association of a given meaning with........................................................ But unlike a word it is not autonomous. Morphemes occur in speech only as constituent parts of words, not independently, although a word may consist of a single morpheme
A given sound model
A given sound pattern
A given sound track
A giving sound pattern
A prefix is a derivational morpheme standing before the root and.............................................., cf. to hearten – to dishearten. It is only with verbs and statives that a prefix may serve to distinguish one part of speech from another, like in earth n–unearth v, sleep n – asleep
Modification meaning
Modificative meaning
Modifiermeaning
Modifying meaning
A suffix is a ............................................................................ following the stem and forming a new derivative in a different part of speech or a different word class, cf. – en, – y, – less in hearten, hearty, heartless
Derivation morpheme
Derivational morpheme
Derivative morpheme
Derived morpheme
A word is a minimum free form. A morpheme is said to be either bound or free. This statement should be taken with caution. It means that .....................................................................................forming words without adding other morphemes: that is, they are homonymous to free forms
check_box Some morphemes are capable of
Some morphemes are capable about
Some morphemes are capable for
Some morphemes are capable for
A compound is a unit of vocabulary which ...........................................more than one lexical stem. The resulting compound functions as a single item with specific meaning and grammar
Consists by
Consists in
Consists of
Consists with
A specific group of rhyme-motivated compounds are ablaut motivated compounds. Ablaut is a term defining ......................................................of two elements, e.g. zigzag; or tick-tock. Ablaut-motivated compounds are used to imitate child-like speech or to stress interjections
Vowel change or alternating
Vowel change or alternation
Vowel changed or alternation
Vowel changing or alternation
According to the role they play in constructing words, morphemes are subdivided into roots and affixes. ....................................................................................................................................................... into prefixes, suffixes and infixes
The last are further subdivided, according to their position
The later are further subdivided, according to their position
The latest are further subdivided, according to their position
The latter are further subdivided, according to their position
All major works on semantic theory have so far been based on referential concepts of meaning. The best known referential model of meaning is .................................
check_box The so-called "basic triangle"
The first-called "basic triangle"
The then-called "basic triangle"
The too-called "basic triangle"
An English word does not necessarily contain formatives indicating to what part of speech it belongs. This holds true ...............................................................i.e. nouns, verbs, adjectives. Not all roots are free forms, but productive roots, i.e. roots capable of producing new words, usually are
Even with respect about inflexible parts of speech,
Even with respect for inflexible parts of speech,
Even with respect of inflexible parts of speech,
Even with respect to inflexible parts of speech,
An infix is ........................................................................placed with in the word, like – n – in stand. The type is not productive
A affix
An affix
An affixation
An affixational
Antonyms are words of the same part of speech, but opposite in meaning. Many words, especially those denoting concrete objects (chair, tree, tiger) have no antonyms. Usually adjectives denoting qualities, verbs ............................. actions or state and abstract nouns have antonyms
Denotation
Denotational
Denotative
Denoting
Blending is also a new, trendy and ................................................which “blends”, i.e. joins fragments of two or more words to create a new form. The meaning is being retained. Enough of the lexeme is usually retained so that the elements are recognisable.
Eye-catched process
Eye-catching process
Eye-catchprocess
Eye-caughtprocess
Clipping is .....................................in English language which “economises” words. Clipping “clips”, i.e. shortens lexemes whilst preserves the original meaning. Basically, any part of the word may be clipped:
A related new trend
A relation new trend
A relative new trend
A relatively new trend
Clippings, blendings and acronyms are subclasses of so called “portmanteau words” ................................................ fragments of two or more words
check_box Which consist of
Which consist in
Which consist on
Which consist with
Criteria of synonymity is interchangeability. .................................................. that neither the traditional definition of synonyms nor the new version provide for any objective criterion of similarity of meaning.
It should be pointed about
It should be pointed at
It should be pointed out
It should be pointed with
Denotation expresses a notion. Denotation is objective, it reflects objective reality through notions. The other part of meaning may express ......................... ............of the speaker to the object of speech, or it may characterize the role of the speaker in the process of communication.
check_box A personal attitude
A person attitude
A personification attitude
A personifying attitude
Derivational suffixes ...................................................... of the original word: they may change the word class, specify the word or generalise it. Most scholars recognise suffixes forming nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs
Effectionmodify the meaning
Effective modify the meaning
Effectively modify the meaning
Effectiveness modify the meaning
Descripitive lexicology studies the words at a synchronic aspect. It is concerned with the vocabulary of a language as they exist at the …………………………….. time
check_box Present
Presentation
Presented
Presenting
Dictionaries of alphabetic languages list words in alphabetical order. With non-alphabetic languages, it may be different. The order in a dictionary with ideographic entries such as Chinese character is often troublesome and ............................................. because each character has different readings.
Controversial
Controversiality
Controversialy
Controversy
General lexicography ................................................., use and evaluation of general dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that provide a description of the language in general use. Such a dictionary is usually called a general dictionary or LGP dictionary (Language for General Purpose).
Focuses about the design, compilation
Focuses at the design, compilation
Focuses on the design, compilation
Focuses onto the design, compilation
General Lexicology is part of General Linguistics; it is concerned with the study of vocabulary ……………………… the specific features of any particular language
check_box Irrespective of
Irrespective for
Irrespective from
Irrespective with
Grammar, which is inseparably bound up with Lexicology, is the study of the grammatical …………………… of language
Causes
Reasons
Results
Structure
Historical or diachronic lexicology deals with ……………………………. of the vocabulary and the changes it has undergone. Ex. In descriptive lexicology the words « to take « ,«to adopt « are considered to be English not to be different from such native words as « child »,» foot «,» stone « etc. But in historical lexicology they are treated as borrowed words.
Develop
Developing
The developed
The development
If we realize that suffixes render the most general semantic component of the word's lexical meaning.................................................................................................., the reason why suffixes are as a rule semantically fused with the stem stands explained
By mark the general class of phenomena to which the referent of the word belongs
By marked the general class of phenomena to which the referent of the word belongs
By marker the general class of phenomena to which the referent of the word belongs
By marking the general class of phenomena to which the referent of the word belongs
In an encyclopaedia the entry influenza discloses the causes, symptoms, characteristics and varieties of this disease, various treatments of and remedies for it, ways of infection, etc. Though, ....................................., it is with linguistic dictionaries that lexicology is closely connected and in our further consideration
Strict speak
Strict speaking
Strictly speak
Strictly speaking
It is easily observed that the sound form of the word is not ...................There is no inherent connection between the sound cluster [d/\v] and the meaning of the word dove
check_box Identical with its meaning
Identication with its meaning
Identified with its meaning
Identity with its meaning
It may be easily ................................................................that the lexical meaning of the word “ boy ” and the lexical meaning of the root-morpheme boy — in such words as boyhood, boyish and others are very much the same
Observation
Observe
Observed
Observing
It will at once be noticed that the root in English is very often homonymous with the word. This fact is of fundamental importance as .....................................................................................................................arising from its general grammatical system on the one hand, and from its phonemic system on the other
.It is one of the most specification features of the English language
It is one of the most specifiable features of the English language.
It is one of the most specific features of the English language
It is one of the most specified features of the English language
Lexical meaning is not indivisible, it ............................. ......................in three components: denotational, connotational, and pragmatic.
check_box may be analyzed
may be analysis
may be analytic
may be analytical
Lexicography, the science, of dictionary-compiling, is closely connected with lexicology, both dealing with the same problems — the form, meaning, usage and origin of vocabulary units — and making ......................of each other’s achievements.
Use
Useful
Usefulness
Useless
Lexicology also ……………………….. all kinds of semantic relations (synonyms, antonyms etc) and semantic grouping (semantic fields)
check_box Studies
Deal
Does
Learns
Lexicology is .................................. ....................................derivational affixes, the other group being the domain of grammarians. The derivational affixes in fact, as well as the whole problem of word-formation, form a boundary area between lexicology and grammar and are therefore studied in both
Primarily concerned by
Primarily concerned of
Primarily concerned to
Primarily concerned with
Lexicology is …………………. with words, variable word-groups, phraseological units, and with morphemes which make up words
check_box Concerned
Dealt
Getting on
Relation
Lexicology is a branch of linguistics which studies the ……………………………. of a language
Grammar
Parts of speech
Semantics
Vocabulary
Lexicology is a branch of linguistics, the …………………… of language.
check_box Science
Calculation
Research
Technology
Many English words consist of a single root-morpheme, so when we say that most morphemes possess ................................................... we imply mainly the root-morphemes in such words
Lexical meaning .
Lexical meaningful
Lexical meanness
Lexical means
Metaphor : a figure of speech based on similarity (hidden comparison between the object/ notion ............................................. denoted by the word and the object/notion in question.).Metaphor gives freshness and vivacity to speech.
General
Generalized
Generalizing
Generally
Morphological motivation implies a direct connection between ......................................................... of the word and its lexical meaning. One-morpheme words, e.g., sing, tell are non-motivated. The meaning of words composed of more than one morpheme is the combined meaning of the morphemes and the meaning of the structural pattern of the word itself
check_box The morphological structure
The morpheme structure
The morphemic structure
The morphology structure
Motivation denotes the relationship between .................................................................................and structural pattern of the word on the one hand, and its meaning on the other. Motivation can be of three types: morphological, phonetical and sematic.
check_box The phonemic or morphemic composition
The phoneme or morphemic composition
The phonemic or morpheme composition
The phonetic or morphemic composition
Nowadays there is no ............... of the meaning, or rather a definition all the basic features of meaning and being simultaneously time operational
check_box Universally accepted definition
Universal accepted definition
Universally accepting definition
Universe accepted definition
One part of meaning expressing a notion is called denotation. ........................................................establishes correlation between the name and the object, process or characteristic feature of concrete reality (or thought) which is denoted by the given word.
check_box Denotational meaning
Denotation meaning
Denotative meaning
Denoting meaning
Phraseological fusions are word-groups with a completely changed meaning but, in contrast to the unities, they are demotivated, that is, their meaning cannot be ............................. ..................the meanings of the constituent parts; the metaphor, on which the shift of m.eaning was based, has lost its clarity and is obscure.
Đeduced away
Deduced by
Deduced from
Deduced with
Phraseological unities are word-groups with a completely changed meaning, that is, the meaning of the unit does not correspond to the meanings of its constituent parts. They are ......................................or, putting it another way, the meaning of the whole unit can be deduced from the meanings of the constituent parts.
Motivated units
Motivating units
Motivation units
Motivative units
Phraseology is the study of set expressions called phraseological units. These "set expressions are ..........................................................idiomatic and reproduced in speech as ready- made units.
check_box Completely or partially
Complete or partially
Completely or partial
Completeness or partially
Rhyme-motivated compounds are usually composed of two elements. The major motivating factor is the rhyme, e.g. flower-power; or brain-drain. Formation of .................... ..................compounds is a very productive process excessively used in advertising or journalese style and, consequently in everyday speech.
Rhyme-motivate
Rhyme-motivated
Rhyme-motivating
Rhyme-motivation
Roots-are main morphemic vehicles of a given idea in a given language at a given stage of its development. A root may be also regarded as the ultimate constituent element which remains ......................................... all functional and derivational affixes and does not admit any further analysis
After the move of
After the removal for
After the removal of
After the removing of
Some English words can change their word class .............................................................. their form. Thus, they can function as nouns (e.g. a Mother) or as verbs (to mother somebody) without any affixes or inflections. Such change of a word class without any derivative means is called conversion
Without any change their form.
Without being changed their form.
Without being changing their form.
Without changing their form.
The .................................. .................go, goes, went, going, gone possess different grammatical meanings of tense, person, number, but in each form they have one and the same semantic component denoting 'the process of movement'.
word-formating
word-formations
word-formings
word-forms
The .......................................is the meaning proper to the given linguistic unit in all its forms and distributions.
lexical meaning
lexically meaning
lexicological meaning
lexicology meaning
The basic principle of .....................is that words do not exist in isolation. The meanings of words are defined through the sense relations they have with other words
A structural semantic approach
A structural semantics approach
A structural semasiological approach
A structural semasiology approach
The branch of lexicology devoted to the study of meaning is called semasiology. Meaning is a realization of a notion or a motion....................definite language system.
By means of
For means of
In means of
Through means of
The definition of the meaning is especially difficult ........................ ..................................the process by which language and human consciousness serve to reflect the reality and adopt it to human needs
check_box Due to the complexity of
Due at the complexity of
Due for the complexity of
Due onto the complexity of
The modern approach to ................ the assumption that the inner form of the word presents a structure which is called the semantic structure of the word
check_box Semasiology is based on
Semasiology is based at
Semasiology is based onto
Semasiology is based with
The semantic realization of an English word is therefore very specific. .....................................................................................by the widespread occurrence of homonymy both among root morphemes and affixes
check_box Its dependence on distribution is further enhanced
Its dependence for distribution is further enhanced
Its dependence onto distribution is further enhanced
Its dependence upon distribution is further enhanced
The subjective part of meaning is the connotation of the word. ........................... .................. are subjective, they characterize the speaker, his attitude, his social role. There are four types of connotation:
Connotate
Connotations
Connotative
Connotatively
The term morpheme is derived from Gr morphe 'form'+ eme. Linguists to ...................................................or the minimum distinctive feature have adopted the Greek suffix – eme. (Cf. phoneme, sememe). The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of form
Denotation the smallest unit
Denotative the smallest unit
Denote the smallest unit
Denoting the smallest unit
There are many different types of English dictionaries. First of all they may all be roughly divided into two groups — encyclopaedic and linguistic. The two groups of .......................................differ essentially in the choice of items included and in the sort of information given about them.
check_box Reference books
Referent
Referential
Referring books
Unlike roots, affixes are always bound forms............................................................................, it will be remembered, is not confined to their respective position, suffixes being «fixed after» and prefixes «fixed before» the stem. It also concerns their function and meaning
check_box The difference between suffixes and prefixes
The difference between suffixals and prefixes
The difference between suffixation and prefixes
The difference between suffixes and prefixation

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